不同施肥处理对油菜产量及品质的影响
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江苏省农业科技自主创新资金项目(cx(10)226)和IPNI国际合作项目(JIANGSU-10)资助


Effects of different fertilizer treatments on yield and quality of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)
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    摘要:

    通过在姜堰地区的大田试验,研究了不同施肥处理条件下油菜产量及籽粒品质的变化。试验设10个肥料处理:对照(不施肥,CK),缺氮(PKB)、缺磷(NKB)、缺钾(NPB)处理,大量营养元素平衡施肥处理(NPK)、增施微量营养元素处理(NPKB、NPKBZn),不同氮肥施用量处理(1/2N+PKB、3/2N+PKB、2N+PKB)。结果表明:①缺失氮、磷、钾中任何一种养分时均能降低油菜产量,且当氮肥施用量为N 18 kg/667m2时,产量最高,而硼和锌肥对油菜增产没有显著效果。②在氮、磷、钾缺素处理中,油菜硫甙含量大小顺序为NKB>PKB>NPB,芥酸含量大小顺序为PKB>NKB>NPB,油菜含油量没有显著变化,油酸含量为NPB>NKB>PKB,蛋白质含量在PKB处理下最低。③在NPK处理平衡施肥条件下,施加硼肥能显著降低硫甙和芥酸含量,显著增加油菜含油量、油酸、蛋白质含量;继续增施锌肥对油菜含油量没有显著影响,但能进一步显著降低硫甙和芥酸含量,并显著提高油菜油酸和蛋白质含量;④油菜硫甙对氮肥施用量具有拐点效应。油菜芥酸含量随着氮肥施用量的增加而显著降低。氮肥施用过高(2N+PKB)显著降低含油量。氮肥施用量对蛋白质的影响趋势和油酸一致,即先随施氮量(<12 kg/667m2)的增加而显著增加,而进一步增施氮肥则没显著变化。

    Abstract:

    In this study, a field experiment was conducted in Jiangyan of Jiangsu Province to study the effects of different fertilizer treatments on yield and seed quality of rape (Brassica napus L.). Ten fertilizer treatments were designed, i.e: Control (no fertilizer, CK), Nitrogen Deficiency Treatment (PKB), Phosphorus Deficiency Treatment (NKB), Potassium Deficiency Treatment (NPB), Macro-nutrients Balanced Fertilizer Treatment (NPK), Micro-nutrients Adding Treatments (NPKB and NPKBZn), Different Nitrogen Fertilizer Application Treatments (1/2N+PKB, 3/2N+PKB, 2N+PKB). The results were showed as follows: 1) Deletion of any kind of nutrient for N, P and K could decrease yield, and grain yield reached the maximum when N fertilizer application rate was 18 kg/667m2. B and Zn had no significant effect on rapeseed yield. 2) In the three nutrient deficiency treatments (PKB, NKB, NPB), glucosinolate content was in the order of NKB>PKB>NPB, erucic acid content in order of PKB>NKB> NPB, oil content presented no significant difference within the three treatments, protein content had no significant difference between NKB and NPB, but higher than PKB. 3) B fertilizer application, under NPK balanced fertilization conditions, could significantly reduce the contents of glucosinolate and erucic acid, and significantly increase the contents of oil, oleic acid and protein. Based on the application of NPKB, adding Zn fertilizer could significantly further reduce the contents of glucosinolate and erucic acid, and significantly increase the contents of oleic acid and protein, although it had no significant effect on oil content. 4) There was an inflection point of glucosinolate content under different N application rate treatments. Erucic acid content significantly decreased with the increasing N fertilizer application rate. Oil content significantly decreased when N fertilizer application was high (2N+PKB). The responses of the contents of oleic acid and protein to different N fertilizer application rates were same, which increased significantly with the increasing of N fertilizer application rates less than 12 kg/667 m2, and then kept stable when N fertilizer application rate continued to increase.

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张 辉,朱德进,黄 卉,宁运旺,张永春.不同施肥处理对油菜产量及品质的影响[J].土壤,2012,44(6):966-971. ZHANG Hui, ZHU De-jin, HUANG Hui, NING Yun-wang, ZHANG Yong-chun. Effects of different fertilizer treatments on yield and quality of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)[J]. Soils,2012,44(6):966-971

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