养分是烤烟生长与烟叶品质形成的基础，为探究烤烟大田生育期间土壤养分供应、烟株养分吸收以及两者匹配情况及其与烟叶品质的关系，本研究测定和分析了湘南目前施肥模式下典型植烟土壤速效养分含量（铵态氮、硝态氮、有效磷和速效钾）、表观肥料养分利用率、烟株养分吸收以及有关烟叶品质指标，并监测了烤烟大田生育期间的气候条件及土壤温湿度变化状况。结果表明：①施氮总量较高（183 kg/hm2），且基施氮量占比高（48.4%），烤烟大田生育前期（0~36 d）土壤速效养分丰富，但烟株生长较慢，导致当季肥料养分利用率不高；②最后一次追肥时间（43 d）偏晚，使得后期烟株脱氮困难，造成顶叶和上二棚叶烟碱含量过高，还原糖含量偏低；③早春低温是烤烟大田生育前期烟株生长缓慢的重要影响因子。针对目前施肥模式与烟株养分需求不匹配问题及其主要影响因素，提出减施基肥、适时适量追肥的优化施肥模式以及应用控缓释肥料、促生微生物、高效多功能叶面肥和施加外源碳等对策。
Nutrients are the bases of tobacco growth and leaf quality formation, and in order to explore nutrient supply of soil, nutrient absorption of tobacco plants and their compatibility as related to leaf quality during the field growth of flue-cured tobacco in southern Hunan, soil available nutrients (ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, available phosphorus and rapid available potassium), apparent fertilizer nutrient use efficiency, nutrient uptake and quality of tobacco leaves were measured and analyzed. Climatic conditions and soil temperature and humidity were also monitored. The results showed that:1) The total nitrogen (N) input (183 kg/hm2) and the proportion of basal N application (48.4%) were higher. In the early field growth period (0-36 d) of flued-cured tobacco, soil available nutrients were abundant due to the relatively high fertilizer application, but tobacco grew slowly, which led to low fertilizer use efficiencies. 2)It was difficult to deprive tobacco plants of N uptake because of belated fertilizer application at the last time (43 d), resulting in high nicotine content but low content of reducing sugar in upper leaves; 3)Low air and soil temperatures in spring were a primary factor for the slow growth of tobacco plants during the early field growth period. Considering the mismatch between fertilization pattern and nutrient needs of tobacco plants and the related key influencing factors, some countermeasures were proposed, including optimizing fertilization featured by reduction in basal fertilizer application rate and follow-up fertilizations timely and at appropriate rates, use of tobacco-specific controlled-release fertilizers, and introduction of growth promoting microorganisms, multi-purpose foliar fertilizers and exogenous carbon.
张静,靳志丽,王兴祥,周志高.湘南典型植烟土壤养分供应及烟株吸收特征[J].土壤,2021,53(5):1008-1014. ZHANG Jing, JIN Zhili, WANG Xingxiang, ZHOU Zhigao. Characteristics of Soil Nutrient Supply and Tobacco Plant Uptake in Typical Tobacco Growing Areas in Southern Hunan[J]. Soils,2021,53(5):1008-1014复制