土壤硅藻研究进展
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Q945.79

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国家自然科学基金重点项目(U20A2094)资助。


Research Progresses of Soil Diatoms
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The National Natural Science Foundation of China (General Program, Key Program, Major Research Plan)

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    摘要:

    硅藻是水环境监测最常用的生物指标之一,相比而言,陆生硅藻的研究相对较少。硅藻作为土壤微生物的重要组成部分,在土壤生物地球化学循环中起到重要的作用。土壤硅藻的研究历史可分为:起步时期(20世纪10年代至50年代)、缓慢发展时期(20世纪70年代至90年代)和快速发展时期(21世纪初至今)。本文重点对土壤硅藻的生物多样性、地理分布特征及其生态环境指示意义进行了总结。目前文献中报道的土壤硅藻属种已超过300种,其中亚南极、波兰及卢森堡的硅藻物种多样性相对较高,土壤中发现的硅藻大致可以分为嗜酸、嗜碱和普适种3种类型。已有的研究发现硅藻对土壤的酸碱度、湿度、有机质含量等环境因子变化响应敏感,是潜在的有效生物指标。在建立土壤硅藻标准分析方法基础上,未来还需要加强土壤硅藻分类学、不同类型土壤间硅藻对比分析和全球土壤硅藻生物地理学研究,此外,还需关注硅藻在土壤生物地球化学循环中的作用。

    Abstract:

    Diatoms are one of the most widely-used bioindicators for water environment monitoring. In contrast, terrestrial diatoms are less investigated. As an important component of soil microorganisms, diatoms play an important role in soil biogeochemical cycles. The research history of soil diatoms can be divided into three stages, i.e. the initial period (1910s—1950s), the slow development period (1970s—1990s) and the rapid development period (2000s—). This study aims to explore biodiversity, geographical distribution and environmental significance of soil diatoms. At present, more than 300 soil diatom species have been identified, with high species richness of soil diatoms in the sub-Antarctic, Poland and Luxemburg. Soil diatoms can be broadly divided into three categories, including acidophilic, alkaliphilic and cosmopolitan species. Previous studies revealed that diatoms were sensitive to variations in soil environmental conditions, such as soil pH, humidity and organic matter content. Therefore, diatoms are a potential bioindicator of soil environmental changes. On the basis of standard analytical methods of soil diatoms, further studies are needed to strengthen taxonomy studies of soil diatoms, to compare diatom communities among different types of soils, and to explore global biogeography of soil diatoms. In addition, the role of diatoms in soil biogeochemical cycles is needed to be explored.

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张玉克,陈旭.土壤硅藻研究进展[J].土壤,2021,53(5):899-906. ZHANG Yuke, CHEN Xu. Research Progresses of Soil Diatoms[J]. Soils,2021,53(5):899-906

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