为了研究减施化肥配施不同有机肥对稻麦轮作体系稻季土壤细菌群落结构的影响，采用Illumina高通量测序技术比较了单施化肥及减施化肥配施菜籽饼肥和蚯蚓粪肥3种施肥模式下稻季不同土层土壤环境因子、细菌群落结构变化特征。结果表明：与单施化肥相比，减施化肥配施有机肥显著提高各土层土壤有机质含量和电导率，其中配施菜籽饼肥土壤增幅较大；显著增加各土层土壤氮、磷、钾养分含量，其中配施蚯蚓粪肥土壤速效氮、磷、钾养分含量较高。减施化肥配施有机肥提高土壤细菌Sobs指数和Shannon指数；前三位优势菌门，变形菌门（Proteobacteria）、酸杆菌门（Acidobacteria）、绿弯菌门（Chloroflexi）相对丰度分别达36.24%、18.30%、13.87%；减施化肥配施有机肥对相对丰度小于1%的菌门影响较大。0~5 cm土层土壤细菌群落结构主要受土壤pH和全磷影响；5~10 cm土层土壤细菌群落结构主要受土壤电导率、全磷和pH影响；10~15 cm土层土壤细菌群落结构主要受土壤全氮和pH影响。因此，减施化肥配施有机肥主要通过改变土壤理化性质进而影响土壤细菌群落结构，特别是稀有菌群。
In order to study the effects of reducing chemical fertilizer combined with application of different organic fertilizers on soil bacterial community structure during the rice season, Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology was used to compare soil environmental factors and soil bacterial community structures in different soil layers under three fertilization modes, namely chemical fertilizer, reducing chemical fertilizer combined with rapeseed cake and earthworm manure. Compared with chemical fertilizer treatment, the treatments with combined application of organic fertilizers significantly increased soil organic matter(SOM) and EC in each soil layer, and the treatments with combined rapeseed cake increased SOM and EC significantly. Soil N, P and K nutrients were significantly increased in each soil layer, which were highest in the treatment with combined application of wormcast. The treatments with combined application of organic fertilizers increased soil bacterial Sobs index and Shannon index. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi were the first three abundant in soils under different treatments at phyla level, reached 36.24%, 18.30% and 13.87%, respectively. Reducing chemical fertilizer combined with application of organic fertilizers had a greater effect on the phyta whose relative abundance was less than 1%. Soil bacterial community structure was greatly affected by soil pH and TP in the 0-5 cm soil layer, mainly affected by EC, pH and TP in the 5-10 cm soil layer, and greatly affected by soil TN and pH in the 10-15 cm soil layer. In conclusion, reducing chemical fertilizer combined with application of organic fertilizer can affect soil bacterial community structure, especially rare bacteria, by changing soil physical and chemical properties.
王娟娟,朱紫娟,钱晓晴,王桂良.减施化肥与不同有机肥配施对稻季土壤细菌群落结构的影响[J].土壤,2021,53(5):983-990. WANG Juanjuan, ZHU Zijuan, QIAN Xiaoqing, WANG Guiliang. Effects of Reducing Chemical Fertilizer Combined with Application of Different Organic Fertilizers on Soil Bacterial Community Structure During Rice Season[J]. Soils,2021,53(5):983-990复制