为探明施肥措施对马铃薯淀粉加工废水灌溉后农田土壤肥力的影响，设置7个施肥处理：T1（CK），不施肥；T2，常规施肥；T3，优化施肥（减氮增磷）；T4，优化施肥+增氧剂；T5，优化施肥70%+生物有机肥；T6，优化施肥70%+生物有机肥+增氧剂；T7，缓释肥（沃夫特26-10-12），取样并检测土壤养分指标及微生物数量。结果表明，与灌溉前相比，灌溉后种植前0~20 cm和20~50 cm土壤有机质、碱解氮、有效磷和速效钾均激增，分别增加68.65%、70.73%，95.47%、86.41%，434.60%、931.05%和485.07%、580.31%，收获后不同施肥处理土壤养分均显著下降，且处理间差异显著。灌溉后种植前0~20 cm土壤真菌、细菌和放线菌分别增加10倍、50倍和1.5倍，微生物总量增加34倍，收获后T1中土壤真菌有所下降，其余施肥处理下土壤真菌显著增加，各施肥处理土壤细菌和微生物总量显著降低，放线菌显著增加。其中T5、T6细菌、放线菌和微生物总量最高，T4真菌最高。两种供试玉米品种株高和地上生物量在不同施肥措施下均由高到低为：T6>T5>T7>T3>T4>T2>T1。由此可知，马铃薯淀粉废水灌溉农田具有一定的肥效，且通过减施化肥，增施有机肥和增氧剂可有效促进马铃薯淀粉废水的肥效作用。
An experiment was conducted in 2017-2018 to explore the effects of potato starch processing wastewater irrigation on soil fertility characteristics, crop yield, and the regulatory effects of different fertilization on its fertilizer efficiency. 7 fertilization treatments were set:T1 (CK), no fertilization; T2, conventional fertilization; T3, optimized fertilization (reduced nitrogen and increased phosphorus); T4, optimized fertilization + oxygenator; T5, optimized fertilization 70% + bio-organic fertilizer; T6, optimized fertilization 70% + bio-organic fertilizer + oxygenator; T7, slow-release fertilizer (Wofte 26-10-12), soil nutrients and microbial counts were detected. The results showed that the contents of soil organic matter, available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of topsoil (0-20 cm) and subsurface soil (20-50 cm) were increased by 68.65% and 70.73%, 95.47% and 86.41%, 434.60% and 931.05%, 485.07% and 580.31% after 60 days irrigation and before planting compared to before irrigation. After harvest, soil nutrient contents were all decreased significantly and significantly different in different fertilizations. Meanwhile, fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes in topsoil were increased by 10, 50 and 1.5 times respectively, and total microbes increased by 34 times. Fungi was increased under different fertilization except T1, bacteria and total microbes were decreased, and actinomycetes was increased significantly after harvest. Among different fertilization, bacteria, actinomycetes and total microbes were highest under T5 and T6, and fungi was highest under T4. The height and aboveground biomass of both tested maize varieties were in the same sequence under different fertilization:T6>T5>T7>T3>T4>T2>T1. Hence, it can be concluded that potato starch processing wastewater has a certain fertilizer efficiency, and the fertilizer effect of potato starch wastewater can be effectively promoted by reducing the application of chemical fertilizer and increasing the application of organic fertilizer and oxygenator.
雷金银,雷晓婷,何进勤,祁焕军,金建新,周丽娜,桂林国,冯付军.马铃薯加工废水灌溉农田土壤肥力特征及其对施肥的响应[J].土壤,2022,54(3):473-480. LEI Jinyin, LEI Xiaoting, HE Jinqin, QI Huanjun, JIN Jianxin, ZHOU Lina, GUI Linguo, FENG Fujun. Soil Fertility Characteristics and Its Response to Fertilization of Potato Starch Processing Wastewater Irrigation[J]. Soils,2022,54(3):473-480复制