紫云英与有机物料连续还田在黄泥田水稻稳产提质增效中的作用
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S142;S141;S156

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国家重点研发计划子课题项目(2018YFD02003035)、福建省自然科学基金项目(2020J011358,2021J01479)和国家绿肥产业技术体系项目(CARS-22-G-01)资助。


Effects of Continuous Return of Milk Vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) and Organic Materials on Stable Yield, Improved Quality and Efficiency in Yellow-mud Paddy Field
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    摘要:

    为明确紫云英与不同有机物料还田在黄泥田改土培肥与水稻化肥减量增效中的作用,基于连续11 a定位试验,研究了不施肥(T0,CK)、单施化肥(T1)、仅翻压紫云英(T2)、紫云英与水稻秸秆联合还田(T3)、紫云英与牛粪配施还田(T4),以及紫云英与水稻秸秆联合还田+40%化肥(T5)处理对水稻产量、籽粒营养品质及稻田肥力的影响。结果表明,与CK相比,各施肥处理籽粒历年平均产量增幅11.4%~21.0%,秸秆平均产量增幅17.1%~40.2%,差异均显著;其中以T5提升尤为明显,其籽粒产量与秸秆产量较T1分别提高3.4%和6.6%;有效穗是产量差异的重要性状因子。各施肥处理成熟期植株地上部氮、磷、钾吸收量较CK分别增幅14.3%~30.6%、8.9%~32.7%、2.9%~47.2%,其中氮、磷吸收量以T4最高,钾吸收量以T5最高。与CK相比,第10年施肥处理籽粒氨基酸总量增幅11.5%~20.6%,必需氨基酸增幅11.1%~19.8%,与T1相比,T5处理的必需氨基酸与氨基酸总量分别提高5.7%和6.5%,差异显著。水稻分蘖盛期T5处理土壤微生物生物量碳含量比T1增加15.2%,微生物生物量氮含量增加42.3%,差异均显著。在水稻成熟期,与T1相比,翻压紫云英或与有机物料组合处理的土壤有机质含量增幅9.7%~16.7%,全氮含量增幅10.9%~14.8%,同样以T5增幅最为明显,T4、T5处理的速效钾含量也显著高于T1。相关分析表明,水稻产量、籽粒氨基酸含量与土壤有机质、全氮、速效钾含量以及微生物生物量碳氮均呈显著正相关。综上,翻压紫云英或与有机物料联合还田均不同程度提高了黄泥田土壤养分库容,促进了植株养分吸收与产量提升,连续11 a紫云英与秸秆或牛粪联合还田可全部替代黄泥田水稻化肥施用,T5处理在提高产量、改善土壤肥力和籽粒氨基酸品质方面作用尤为明显。土壤有机质、全氮、速效钾、微生物生物量碳氮是影响水稻产量和稻米氨基酸品质的重要肥力因子。

    Abstract:

    To evaluate the applying effects of milk vetch and different organic materials on soil amelioration and chemical fertilizer decrement, a 11-year fertilization experiment was conducted since 2009 in thered paddy field in Fuzhou City, Fujian Province. Six fertilization treatments were designed, including T0(CK, without fertilization), T1(chemical fertilizer), T2 (milk vetch alone), T3(milk vetch combining straw), T4(milk vetch combining cow dung) and T5(milk vetch combining straw plus 40% chemical fertilizer). The effects of different fertilization on soil nutrients, rice yield, nutritional quality and soil fertility were investigated. The results showed that compared with CK, rice grain and straw yields in fertilization were significantly increased by 11.4%-21.0% and 17.1%-40.2% respectively, especially for the T5, which were significantly increased by 3.4% and 6.6% respectively compared with T1. Effective panicle was an important character factor responsible for yield variation. In addition, compared with CK at mature stage, fertilization increased N, P and K uptake by 14.3%-30.6%, 8.9%-32.7% and 2.9%-47.2% respectively in rice aboveground plants. The highest absorption of N and P were found in T4, and the highest absorption of K was in T5. Total and essential amino acid contents in rice grains under fertilization in the 10th year were increased by 11.5%-20.6% and 11.1%-19.8% respectively, compared with CK. Furthermore, compared with T1, essential and total amino acid contents in T5 were significantly increased by 5.7% and 6.5% respectively. Meanwhile, soil fertility was improved by applying different organic matters, especially for T5, compared with T1, soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) and nitrogen (SMBN) concentrations in T5 at the peak of tillering stage were significantly increased by 15.2% and 42.3% respectively. Additionally, soil organic matter and total nitrogen contents at mature stage were increased by 9.7%-16.7% and 10.9%-14.8% respectively in organic treatments compared with T1, and T5 with the highest increment. In addition, available potassium contents in T4 and T5 were significantly higher than that of T1. Correlation analysis revealed that the contents of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available potassium, SMBC and SMBN were significantly positively correlated with rice yield, total and essential amino acid contents, respectively. In conclusion, continuous return of milk vetch and organic materials could ameliorate soil properties, increase nutrient uptake and rice yield. For 11 consecutive years, the combination of Chinese milk vetch and straw or cow dung could replace chemical fertilizer application in yellow-mud paddy field, T5 was the best fertilization in increasing rice yield and amino acid quality of rice grains as well as soil fertility. Soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available potassium, SMBC and SMBN are important fertility factors affecting rice yield and amino acid of rice grains.

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王飞,王利民,何春梅,刘彩玲,李清华,张辉,游燕玲,黄毅斌,黄建诚.紫云英与有机物料连续还田在黄泥田水稻稳产提质增效中的作用[J].土壤,2022,54(3):455-463. WANG Fei, WANG Limin, HE Chunmei, LIU Cailing, LI Qinghua, ZHANG Hui, YOU Yanling, HUANG Yibin, HUANG Jiancheng. Effects of Continuous Return of Milk Vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) and Organic Materials on Stable Yield, Improved Quality and Efficiency in Yellow-mud Paddy Field[J]. Soils,2022,54(3):455-463

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