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宋文峰,王 超,陈荣府,文石林,王伯仁,沈仁芳.长期不同施肥下小麦离子吸收对土壤酸化贡献能力的比较[J].土壤,2017,49(1):7-12. SONG Wenfeng,WANG Chao,CHEN Rongfu,WEN Shilin,WANG Boren,SHEN Renfang.Comparison of Contribution of Wheat Ionic Uptake to Soil Acidification Under Long-term Different Fertilization[J].Soils,2017,49(1):7-12 本文二维码信息
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长期不同施肥下小麦离子吸收对土壤酸化贡献能力的比较
Comparison of Contribution of Wheat Ionic Uptake to Soil Acidification Under Long-term Different Fertilization
投稿时间:2016-02-24  最后修改时间:2016-03-30
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2017.01.002
中文关键词:  土壤酸化  长期施肥  植物酸化能力  离子吸收
Key Words:Soil acidification  Long-term fertilization  Acidification ability of plant  Ion uptake
基金项目:国家重点基础研究发展计划(973计划)项目(2014CB441000)和中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDB15030300)资助。
作者单位E-mail
宋文峰 土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所) wfsong@issas.ac.cn 
王 超 土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所)  
陈荣府 土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所)  
文石林 中国农业科学院衡阳红壤实验站祁阳农田生态系统国家野外试验站  
王伯仁 中国农业科学院衡阳红壤实验站祁阳农田生态系统国家野外试验站  
沈仁芳 土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所) rfshen@issas.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      农业生产中长期不合理施肥导致土壤严重酸化,除了硝化作用和硝酸盐淋溶,作物对阳离子吸收是另一个重要的土壤酸度来源。本研究基于湖南祁阳红壤实验站农田25年长期定位试验研究了长期不同施肥下小麦阴阳离子吸收对土壤酸化贡献能力的变化。结果表明:长期施用化学氮肥显著降低土壤pH,影响小麦生物量,而施用有机肥可缓解土壤酸化,提高小麦生物量;单位面积土壤中小麦吸收阴阳离子对酸化的潜在贡献能力,即小麦产生的总质子量的大小顺序为:有机肥处理(M)>氮磷钾配施有机肥处理(NPKM)>磷钾肥处理(PK)>氮磷钾肥处理(NPK)>不施肥处理(CK)>氮磷肥处理(NP)>氮钾肥处理(NK)。相关性分析显示,小麦产生的总质子量与土壤pH、有效磷含量和地上部总生物量均呈显著正相关,而土壤pH和有效磷含量均与小麦地上部生物量呈显著正相关。因此,长期施肥的农田土壤中,随着酸化程度的加深,作物通过阴阳离子吸收对土壤酸化的贡献能力减弱,主要原因在于低土壤pH和有效磷含量限制了作物的生长,降低了作物的生物量。
Abstract:
      The long-term unreasonable fertilization leads to serious soil acidification in agricultural production. In addition to nitrification and nitrate leaching, the uptake of cations by plants is also an important source of soil acidity. In this study, the effects of long-term different fertilization on the absorption of anion and cation in wheat were studied at the long-term location experiment field of the Red Soil Experimental Station in Qiyang, Hunan Province, which has a history of 25 years. The results showed that long-term application of chemical nitrogen fertilizer significantly decreased soil pH and affected the biomass of wheat. On the contrary, organic fertilizer could alleviate the acidification process of soil and increase the biomass of wheat. The order of the total amounts of proton produced by wheat in the unit soil area which is considered as potential acidification ability of plant was M>NPKM>PK>NPK>CK>NP>NK. There was a significant positive correlation between total amount of proton and total biomass of wheat. In addition, soil pH and available phosphorus content were the main factors affecting wheat shoot biomass. Therefore, in the long-term fertilization of farmland soil, the contribution of crops to soil acidification decreased along with the acidification process, and the main reason was that soil pH and effective phosphorus reduction limited the crop biomass.
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