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张 林,徐富贤,熊 洪,蒋 鹏,周兴兵,朱永川,刘 茂,郭晓艺.水氮管理对优质杂交中稻旌优127产量及氮肥利用率的影响[J].土壤,2017,49(4):679-684. ZHANG Lin,XU Fuxian,XIONG Hong,JIANG Peng,ZHOU Xingbing,ZHU Yongchuan,LIU Mao,GUO Xiaoyi.Effects of Water and Nitrogen Management on Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Good Quality Hybrid Rice Jingyou127[J].Soils,2017,49(4):679-684 本文二维码信息
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水氮管理对优质杂交中稻旌优127产量及氮肥利用率的影响
Effects of Water and Nitrogen Management on Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Good Quality Hybrid Rice Jingyou127
投稿时间:2016-06-25  修订日期:2016-10-18
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2017.04.006
中文关键词:  优质稻  水氮管理  产量  氮肥利用率
Key Words:Good quality rice  Water and nitrogen managements  Yield  Nitrogen use efficiency
基金项目:国家粮食科技丰产工程项目(2013BAD07B13)、国家水稻产业体系项目(CARS-01)、四川省水稻育种攻关项目和四川省财政基因工程项目资助。
作者单位E-mail
张 林 四川省农业科学院水稻高粱研究所/农业部西南水稻生物学与遗传育种重点实验室 zhanglin1090@sina.com 
徐富贤 四川省农业科学院水稻高粱研究所/农业部西南水稻生物学与遗传育种重点实验室  
熊 洪 四川省农业科学院水稻高粱研究所/农业部西南水稻生物学与遗传育种重点实验室  
蒋 鹏 四川省农业科学院水稻高粱研究所/农业部西南水稻生物学与遗传育种重点实验室  
周兴兵 四川省农业科学院水稻高粱研究所/农业部西南水稻生物学与遗传育种重点实验室  
朱永川 四川省农业科学院水稻高粱研究所/农业部西南水稻生物学与遗传育种重点实验室  
刘 茂 四川省农业科学院水稻高粱研究所/农业部西南水稻生物学与遗传育种重点实验室  
郭晓艺 四川省农业科学院水稻高粱研究所/农业部西南水稻生物学与遗传育种重点实验室  
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中文摘要:
      为充分发挥优质稻的产量潜力并实现水氮资源的高效利用,以优质杂交中稻旌优127为材料,在大田环境下研究管水方式(W)、施氮量(N)和施氮方式(D)及其互作对水稻产量、穗粒结构和氮肥利用率的影响。结果表明:管水方式(W)、施氮量(N)、管水方式(D)与施氮方式互作 (W×D)、管水方式与施氮量互作(W×N)、施氮量与施氮方式互作(N×D)以及三者互作(W×N×D)间对旌优127产量的影响达极显著水平,施氮方式(D)对产量的影响接近显著水平(P=0.050 5),旌优127产量在不同施氮量下均以浅湿管水且氮肥后移时产量最高。管水方式(W)、施氮量(N)、施氮方式(D)及其互作对水稻穗粒结构有不同程度的影响,通径分析表明影响产量的主要因子为单位面积有效穗数,其次是穗粒数。除施氮方式(D)、管水方式与施氮量互作 (W×N)外的其他因子及其互作对氮肥农学利用率有显著影响;浅湿管水处理氮肥农学利用率显著低于常规管水处理;在浅湿管水下,氮肥后移时水稻氮肥农学利用效率随着施氮量的增加显著降低,常规施氮时差异较小;在常规管水下则相反。除施氮方式(D)外的其他因子及其互作对氮肥偏生产力有显著影响;浅湿管水处理氮肥偏生产力显著高于常规管水处理;氮肥偏生产力在不同的管水方式下均随施氮量的增加显著降低。浅湿管水,施氮100 kg/hm2,最高苗期适量施用穗肥是试验所在生态区最佳的水氮管理方式。
Abstract:
      In order to fully realize the yield potential of good quality rice and the efficient utilization of water and nitrogen (N) resources, we explored the effects of water management (W), N application level (N) and application method (D) as well as their interaction on rice yield, grain structure and N use efficiency by a field experiment with the good quality hybrid rice Jingyou127 as material. The results showed that the yield of Jingyou127 was extremely significant effected by W, N and the interactions of W×N, W×D, N×D and W×N×D. The effect of D on yield was close to the significant level (P=0.050 5), the yield of Jingyou127 was highest when 75% N as base fertilizer and 25% as panicle fertilizer in wet-shallow alternate irrigation. W, N, D and their interactions had different effects on grain structure. Path analysis showed that the effective panicles and spikelets per panicle were the main factors of the yield. Except D and W×N,the other factors and their interactions had significant effects on N agronomic efficiency. Under the wet-shallow alternate irrigation, N agronomic efficiency was significantly lower than that under conventional irrigation, and it significantly decreased with the increase of N application level at postponing N application treatment, but little difference under conventional N application treatment, which had the opposite effect. Except D, the other factors and their interactions had significant effects on the partial factor productivity of applied N. Under the wet-sallow alternate irrigation, the partial factor productivity of applied N was significantly higher than that under conventional irrigation, and it significantly decreased with the increased N application level. Wet-shallow alternate irrigation, 100 kg/hm2 N (75% as base fertilizer and 25% as panicle fertilizer) is the best model of water-nitrogen coupling management.
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