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陈 贵,张红梅,沈亚强,程旺大.猪粪与牛粪有机肥对水稻产量、养分吸收利用和 土壤肥力的影响[J].土壤,2018,50(1):59-65. CHEN Gui,ZHANG Hongmei,SHEN Yaqiang,CHENG Wangda.Application Effects of Swine and Cow Manures on Rice Yield, Nutrient Uptakes and Use Efficiencies and Soil Fertility[J].Soils,2018,50(1):59-65 本文二维码信息
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猪粪与牛粪有机肥对水稻产量、养分吸收利用和 土壤肥力的影响
Application Effects of Swine and Cow Manures on Rice Yield, Nutrient Uptakes and Use Efficiencies and Soil Fertility
投稿时间:2016-12-02  修订日期:2017-02-13
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2018.01.008
中文关键词:  水稻  猪粪有机肥  牛粪有机肥  产量  土壤肥力
Key Words:Rice  Swine manure  Cow manure  Yield  Soil fertility
基金项目:嘉兴市科技局重点项目(2017AZ13025;2014AZ21005)资助。
作者单位E-mail
陈 贵 嘉兴市农业科学研究院 chenzhao2004@163.com 
张红梅 嘉兴市农业科学研究院  
沈亚强 嘉兴市农业科学研究院  
程旺大 嘉兴市农业科学研究院  
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中文摘要:
      采用连续5年田间定位试验,研究了等量单独施用猪粪或牛粪有机肥以及有机肥与化学肥料配施对水稻产量、氮磷钾养分吸收累积及利用效率、土壤养分含量及其与产量等关系的影响。结果表明:猪粪有机肥施用(7.5 t/hm2 +常量化肥、15 t/hm2 +1/2常量化肥和30 t/hm2 +无化肥)时水稻产量、干物质累积、氮磷累积及生理利用效率与常量化肥处理相比无显著差异; 牛粪有机肥与化肥减量配施和单独施用时,尽管氮、磷和钾生理利用效率有所提高。但水稻产量地上部氮、磷和钾累积量均有不同程度下降,且以单独施用时尤为明显,等量猪粪有机肥对土壤全氮、碱解氮、有效磷和速效钾含量以及pH的提升程度大于牛粪有机肥,有机质含量无明显差异;与猪粪有机肥相比,牛粪有机肥施用时土壤养分各指标与水稻产量、干物质累积量、氮磷钾累积量以及利用效率间的相关性更为明显,其中与产量、干物质累积量和氮磷钾累积量极显著负相关,与氮磷钾生理利用效率显著正相关。因此,等量猪粪有机肥和牛粪有机肥的肥效存在较大差异,在实际生产中应根据不同源有机肥特性进行调节施用。
Abstract:
      A 5-year field experiment was conducted to study the effects of equivalent-application of chemical fertilizers (CF), swine manure (SM), cow manure (CM), and SM or CM mixed CF on rice yield, N, P and K uptake and utilization efficiency as well as soil fertility and the correlations between soil nutrients and rice yield, et al. The results showed that there were no significant differences in rice yields, dry matter accumulations, N and P accumulations and use efficiencies between SM treatments SM (SM 7.5 t/hm2 + CF normal level, SM 15 t/hm2 + CF half level, and sole SM 30 t/hm2) and CK treatment (sole CF normal level, CK). However, compared to CK, CM treatments (CM 15 t/hm2+CF half level, and sole CM 30 t/hm2) increased N, P and K physiological use efficiencies, but reduced rice yields, N, P and K accumulations of above-ground rice part, particularly for sole CM. Under the equivalent application, SM promoted soil total N, alkali-hydrolyzable N, Olsen-P, NH4OAc-extractable K contents and pH value higher than CM, but no difference between organic matter contents. Compared with CM, higher correlations were detected between soil nutrient contents with rice yields, dry matter accumulations, N, P and K accumulations and physiological use efficiencies when CM was applied. Therefore, there are obvious differences between the application effects of SM and CM, the application of manure should be dependent upon the characteristics of the manure, such as mineralization rate and nutrient content.
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