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张 敏,赵 淼,田玉华,尹 斌,朱兆良.太湖地区高产高效措施下水稻氮淋溶和径流损失的研究[J].土壤,2018,50(1):35-42. ZHANG Min,ZHAO Miao,TIAN Yuhua,YIN Bin,ZHU Zhaoliang.Study on N Leaching and Runoff Under Integrated High Yield and High Efficiency Practices in Paddy Fields of Taihu Lake Region[J].Soils,2018,50(1):35-42 本文二维码信息
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太湖地区高产高效措施下水稻氮淋溶和径流损失的研究
Study on N Leaching and Runoff Under Integrated High Yield and High Efficiency Practices in Paddy Fields of Taihu Lake Region
投稿时间:2016-12-09  修订日期:2017-06-02
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2018.01.005
中文关键词:  水稻  氮素利用率  淋溶  径流  高产高效
Key Words:Rice  N use efficiency  N leaching  Runoff  High efficiency and high yield
基金项目:农业部公益性行业科研专项(201003014)和国家重点基础研究发展计划(973 计划)项目(2013CB127400)资助。
作者单位E-mail
张 敏 土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所) mzhang@issas.ac.cn 
赵 淼 成都信息工程大学资源环境学院  
田玉华 土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所)  
尹 斌 土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所)  
朱兆良 土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所)  
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中文摘要:
      在太湖地区,采用田间小区试验,研究了高产高效措施对水稻季氮素淋溶和径流损失的影响。结果发现,水稻季总氮(TN)和可溶性有机氮(DON)淋溶随土壤深度的增加而降低,不同深度下氮淋溶形态不同。60 cm处DON浓度要高于硝氮(NO3--N)和铵氮(NH4+-N),占TN的40.5% ~ 58.9%;80 cm处NO3--N的浓度要高于DON和NH4+-N,占TN的52.3% ~ 60.7%。相比当地常规处理,高产高效处理的NO3--N淋溶减少了51.7% ~ 54.7%,仅占施肥的0.5% ~ 0.9%。在氮的径流损失中,NH4+-N占TN的48.1% ~ 56.4%,而NO3--N占TN的36% ~ 53%。试验中氮素通过径流途径的损失量很低,仅占施肥的0.34% ~ 0.59%。高产高效处理的氮淋溶和径流损失之和分别为10.59 kg/hm2和10.18 kg/hm2,低于常规处理(13.41 kg/hm2)。除此之外,高产高效措施的作物产量(11.14 ~ 12.22 t/hm2)和农学利用率(11.8 ~ 12.5 kg/kg)均显著高于当地常规处理。水稻收获后,高产高效处理的土壤TN相比常规处理提高了6.8% ~ 8.1%,有机质含量提高了8.6% ~ 9.2%。综上,高产高效措施不仅有利于作物产量和氮素利用率的提高,还削弱了氮在土-水界面的迁移,是作物增产且环境友好型的有效措施。
Abstract:
      The influences of integrated practices for high yield and high efficiency on nitrogen (N) leaching and runoff under rice-wheat rotation system were studied with field plot experiment in the Taihu Lake Region. It was found that the leaching of total nitrogen (TN) and organic N (DON) declined with the increase of soil depth and the forms of N leaching changed with soil depth. DON in the percolation water in 60 cm depth, which accounting for 40.5%-58.9% of TN, was higher than NO3--N and NH4+-N. NO3--N in the percolation water in 80 cm was higher than DON and NH4+-N and accounted for 51.7%-54.7% of TN. NH4+-N loss was the main form of N runoff, and accounted for 48.1%-56.4% of TN. However, N losses via runoff were indistinctive, only accounting for 0.3%-0.6% of fertilizer application. The total loss of N leaching and runoff in the high yield an high efficiency treatments were 10.59 and 10.18 kg/hm2, which were lower than in the current treatment with a value of 13.41 kg/hm2. The rice yield in high yield and high efficiency treatments was 11.14-12.22 t/hm2, and the agronomic efficiency reached 11.8-12.5 kg/kg, which were significantly higher than those of the traditional treatment. After harvest, soil TN content increased by 6.8%-8.1% and soil organic matter by 8.6%-9.2% in high yield and high efficiency treatments compared to traditional treatment. In short, high yield and high efficiency practices can increase crop yield and N use efficiency, weaken the migration of N through water to soil and thus is beneficial to both crop yield and environment.
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