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宋 佳,徐 倩,田 汇,胥婷婷,张 洋,张 荣,黄冬琳,高亚军.青海春油菜养分管理现状调查与分析[J].土壤,2018,50(5):888-893. SONG Jia,XU Qian,TIAN Hui,XU Tingting,ZHANG Yang,ZHANG Rong,HUANG Donglin,GAO Yaojun.On Nutrient Management Status of Qinghai Spring Rape[J].Soils,2018,50(5):888-893 本文二维码信息
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青海春油菜养分管理现状调查与分析
On Nutrient Management Status of Qinghai Spring Rape
投稿时间:2017-05-06  修订日期:2017-07-31
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2018.05.005
中文关键词:  春油菜  产量  施肥量  养分管理
Key Words:Spring rape  Yield  Fertilization  Nutrient management
基金项目:公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201503124)、教育部“新世纪优秀人才支持计划”项目(NCET-08-0465)和农业科研杰出人才及其创新团队培养计划项目资助。
作者单位E-mail
宋 佳 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院 18353232175@163.com 
徐 倩 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院  
田 汇 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院  
胥婷婷 青海大学农林科学院土壤肥料研究所  
张 洋 青海大学农林科学院土壤肥料研究所  
张 荣 青海大学农林科学院土壤肥料研究所  
黄冬琳 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院  
高亚军 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院 yajungao@nwsuaf.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      为了明确我国春油菜的施肥和生产现状,2015年在青海省春油菜典型种植区选取了3个县做了400余户实地调查与分析。结果表明:调查区有87.3% 的农户春油菜产量都超过常年春油菜平均产量(1 674.17 ~ 2 158.36 kg/hm2)。30.0% 的农户氮肥投入适中,40.7% 偏高和很高,29.3% 偏低和很低;与2009年和2010年调查结果相比,农户施氮水平总体在下降,但仍存在很大的减氮空间。调查区37.4% 的农户磷肥投入适中,32.8% 偏高和很高,29.7% 偏低和很低;与2009年和2010年调查结果相比,施磷量提高。钾肥、有机肥用量极低,中微量肥料投入基本为空白。总之,青海春油菜氮、磷肥投入过量与投入不足现象并存。因此,要根据土壤养分状况,依据测土配方实行平衡施肥,主要是控制氮磷肥用量,适当增施微肥和有机肥,保证春油菜的营养需求。
Abstract:
      In order to clarify the fertilization and production status of spring rape in northwest China, three typical counties of spring rape production were selected and surveyed in Qinghai in 2015. The results showed that the surveyed mean yield of spring rapeseed was 87.3% higher than the conventional annual mean yield (1 674.17 ~ 2 158.36 kg/hm2). In input of nitrogen fertilizer, 30.0% of the farmers were moderate, 40.7% of the farmers were high and very high, and 29.3% of the farmers were low and very low. Compared with the survey results in 2009 and 2010, the input of nitrogen showed a general declining trend, but there is still a large space for nitrogen reduction. In input of phosphorus fertilizer, 37.4% of the farmers were moderate, 32.8% of the farmers were high and very high, and 29.7% of the farmers were low and very low. Compared with the survey results in 2009 and 2010, the input of phosphorus showed an increasing trend. The inputs of potassium and organic fertilizers were very low, while no input of medium and micro-fertilizers. In short, excessive and inadequate inputs were coexisted in the inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers for spring rape production in Qinghai. Therefore, it is necessary for balanced fertilization in controlling the fertilizers of nitrogen, phosphors and potassium according to the status of soil nutrients, meanwhile appropriate trace element fertilizers and rational organic fertilizers are also needed.
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