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腐植酸土壤调理剂对酸化果园土壤理化性状及苹果产量和品质的影响
陈士更1, 张 民1, 丁方军1, 郭新送2, 孟庆羽2, 王焕喜2
1.土肥资源高效利用国家工程实验室,山东农业大学资源与环境学院;2.山东省腐植酸高效利用示范工程技术研究中心,山东农大肥业科技有限公司
摘要:
为研究不同类型土壤调理剂对酸化果园土壤的改良效果,本试验采用普通土壤调理剂和腐植酸土壤调理剂,设置普通土壤调理剂+常规施肥、腐植酸土壤调理剂+常规施肥、腐植酸土壤调理剂减量15%+常规施肥和等养分肥料+常规施肥4个处理,在胶东酸化果园进行了为期两年的试验。结果表明:施用2种土壤调理剂均能改善酸化土壤的理化性状。在土壤物理性状方面,与普通土壤调理剂相比,施用腐植酸土壤调理剂的土壤容重降低2.72% ~ 4.76%,粉粒含量增加3.12% ~ 5.28%,孔隙度提高1.74% ~ 3.54%;在土壤化学性状方面,施用腐植酸土壤调理剂的土壤速效钾含量增加 3.74% ~ 10.57%,pH提高 0.07 ~ 0.45个单位。施用2种土壤调理剂均能提高苹果产量,相比于普通土壤调理剂,施用全量腐植酸土壤调理剂可增产4.84%,减量15% 施用仍增产2.87%,而二者间差异未达显著性水平。此外,连续两年施用腐植酸土壤调理剂可以改善苹果的品质,其中总糖含量提高9.35% ~ 15.46%,糖酸比提高21.84% ~ 46.58%。综上,胶东酸化果园(pH<4.5)在常规施肥下配施腐植酸土壤调理剂1 275 kg/hm2可作为短期内改良酸化土壤、提高苹果产量和品质的有效途径。
关键词:  腐植酸土壤调理剂  酸化土壤  苹果  产量  品质
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2019.01.012
分类号:S153.6+1;S156.2
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0200402-10)和泰安市科技发展计划项目(2015HZ1149)资助。
Humic Acid Soil Conditioner Improved Soil Physicochemical Properties, Apple Yield and Quality in Acidified Orchard Soil
CHEN Shigeng1, ZHANG Min1, DING Fangjun1, GUO Xinsong2, MENG Qingyu2, WANG Huanxi2
1.National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer Resources, College of Resources and Environment, Shandong Agricultural University;2.Engineering Technology Research Center of Shandong Province, Efficient Utilization of Humic Acid, Shandong Agricultural University Fertilizer Science Tech. Co. Ltd.
Abstract:
In order to study the improvement effects of soil conditioner on soil physicochemical properties, apple yield and quality of acidified orchard soil, four treatments were designed which included common soil conditioner + conventional fertilization, humic acid soil conditioner + conventional fertilization, humic acid soil conditioner 85% application + conventional fertilization, and equal nutrient fertilizer + conventional fertilization. The results showed that the humic acid soil conditioners improved the physicochemical properties of acidified soil and increased apple yield and quality in acidified orchard. Compared with common soil conditioner, humic acid soil conditioner reduced soil bulk density by 2.72%-4.76%, and increased silt content, porosity, rapid potassium and pH by 3.12%-5.28%, 1.74%-3.54%, 3.74%-10.57% and 0.07-0.45 units, respectively. Meanwhile, humic acid soil conditioner increased apple yield by 4.84%, even 85% of humic acid soil conditioner application still increased apple yield by 2.87%. In addition, humic acid soil conditioner increased total sugar content by 9.35%-15.46% and reduced sugar acid by 21.84%-46.58%. In conclusion, humic acid soil conditioner of 1 275 kg/hm2 under conventional fertilization is regarded as the effective way in improving soil quality and apple yield and quality in short term for acidified orchard in Jiaodong area (pH<4.5).
Key words:  Humic acid soil conditioner  Acidified orchard soil  Apple  Yield  Quality

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