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基于物种敏感性分布的江苏省典型水稻土Cd安全阈值研究
郑倩倩,王兴祥,丁昌峰
1.南京大学地理与海洋科学学院 南京;2.中国科学院土壤环境与污染修复重点实验室南京土壤研究所南京
摘要:
研究不同水稻品种富集镉(Cd)的敏感性差异和江苏典型水稻土Cd的安全阈值,可为水稻安全生产和产地安全性评价提供理论依据。选择江苏省主栽的12个水稻品种和2种代表性水稻土(酸性的兴化勤泥土和中性的常熟乌栅土),通过温室盆栽试验,分别添加不同浓度的外源Cd,研究不同水稻品种对Cd的敏感性差异,并利用物种敏感性分布法(species sensitivity distribution,SSD)推导2种土壤Cd的安全阈值。结果表明:不同水稻品种糙米Cd含量存在显著的种间差异,最高含量和最低含量相差3 ~ 6倍,并表现为籼型杂交稻显著高于粳型常规稻和粳型杂交稻。利用Burr Ⅲ型分布函数拟合12个水稻品种富集Cd的SSD曲线,通过国家食品安全标准反推出勤泥土和乌栅土上保护95% 的水稻品种糙米不超标的HC5值即安全阈值,其中全量Cd分别为0.78 mg/kg和1.17 mg/kg,CaCl2提取态Cd分别为0.13 mg/kg和0.14 mg/kg,EDTA提取态Cd分别为0.46 mg/kg和0.64 mg/kg。2种土壤上基于全量Cd的安全阈值均高出我国《土壤环境质量标准》(GB 15618—1995)中二级标准的限值(0.30 mg/kg、pH≤7.5)。
关键词:    水稻品种  水稻土  安全阈值
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2019.03.020
分类号:X53
基金项目:中国科学院南京土壤研究所“一三五”计划和领域前沿项目(ISSASIP1612)和江苏省自然科学基金青年基金项目(BK20151054)资助。
Food Safety Thresholds of Cadmium in Two Typical Paddy Soils of Jiangsu Province Based on Species Sensitivity Distribution
Zheng Qianqian1, Wang Xingxiang2, Ding Changfeng3
1.School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing;2.Institute of soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing;3.Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Abstract:
Understanding the sensitivity differences of cadmium (Cd) uptake by different rice cultivars and the food safety thresholds of Cd in typical paddy soils of Jiangsu Province is necessary for the safe production of rice and the environmental assessment of paddy field. In the present study, twelve rice cultivars widely grown in Jiangsu Province were selected, and two paddy soils (acid soil sampled from Xinghua City and neutral soil sampled from Changshu City) with different physicochemical properties were collected from Jiangsu Province. The soils were spiked with Cd in different Cd addition levels. The greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to study the sensitivity differences of accumulation ability of different rice cultivars. The results indicated that there were significant differences in Cd concentrations in brown rice due to the difference of enrichment ability, the highest concentration is 3~6 times higher than the minimum concentration, and the indica hybrid rice was significantly higher than that of japonica regular rice and japonica hybrid rice. The SSD curves for Cd were fitted with Burr Ⅲ type distribution based on the bioconcentration factors of the twelve rice cultivars. The 5% hazardous concentrations were then derived inversely by the national food safety standard. The threshold values based on total Cd content in Xinghua soil and Changshu soil were 0.78 and 1.17 mg/kg respectively. The corresponding threshold values based on CaCl2 extractable Cd were 0.13 and 0.14 mg/kg, while the corresponding threshold values based on EDTA extractable Cd were 0.46 and 0.64 mg/kg, respectively. Cd thresholds based on total Cd in the soils were higher than the 2nd Grade (0.30 mg/kg for soils with pH≤7.5) of the Chinese Soil Environmental Quality Standard (GB 15618-1995).
Key words:  Cadmium  Rice cultivars  Paddy soils  Food safety threshold

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