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有机物料类型对烟草根际微生物及烟叶产质量的影响
刘勇军1, 周 羽2, 靳志丽3, 彭曙光4, 周志高2, 陈长青5, 王兴祥2, 李孝刚2
1.湖南省烟草科学研究所;2.中国科学院南京土壤研究所;3.湖南省烟草公司永州市公司;4.湖南省烟草公司;5.南京农业大学农学院
摘要:
作为土壤微生物重要的碳、氮源,有机物料在调节根际微生物群落结构、改善土壤养分循环、提高作物产质方面发挥着重要作用。本文以常规化肥处理为对照,设定等有效氮条件下水稻秸秆还田、油菜绿肥翻压和饼肥(腐熟)等3种有机物料类型对烟草根际土壤酶活性、微生物功能多样性及烟叶产质的影响,以期为合理施用有机物料来提高烟叶品质提供科学依据。结果表明,稻草还田和油菜绿肥翻压处理显著提升了烟草根际脲酶活性,但对根际过氧化氢酶活性无显著影响;Biolog分析发现稻草还田和油菜绿肥翻压显著提高了烟草生育后期根际微生物群落的代谢活性和功能多样性指数,碳源利用类型差异是引起有机物料处理下烟草根际微生物群落变异的重要因素,其中糖类碳源影响最大。有机物料处理下烟叶化学指标无显著变化,但上中等烟叶比例显著提高,其中稻草还田和油菜绿肥翻压处理下烟叶产值分别比对照提高29.4%、19.8%。本研究表明,植烟土壤上合理采用有机物料部分替代化肥的施肥措施有效改善了烟草根际微生态环境,提升烟叶品质,可作为烟草优质生产的有效栽培措施。
关键词:  有机物料  根际微生物  土壤酶活  烟叶产量和品质
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2018.02.013
分类号:S141
基金项目:国中国烟草总公司湖南省公司科技项目(15-18Aa01)资助。
Effects of Different Organic Materials on Rhizosphere Microbes, Yield and Quality of Tobacco Leaves
LIU Yongjun,ZHOU Yu,JIN Zhili,PENG Shuguang,ZHOU Zhigao,CHEN Changqing,WANG Xingxiang,LI Xiaogang
1.Hunan Tobacco Science Institute;2.Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences;3.Yongzhou Tobacco Company of Hunan Province;4.College of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University
Abstract:
Organic materials as the important carbon and nitrogen sources for soil microorganisms play crucial roles in regulating rhizosphere microbial community, nutrient cycling and improving crop yield and quality. Under the same amount of nitrogen input, a field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of different organic materials (rice straw, rape green manure and cake fertilizer, compared to the conventional chemical fertilizers as the control) on enzyme activities, rhizosphere microbial functional diversity and yield and quality of tobacco leaves in order to provide scientific information on proper use of organic materials to improve tobacco leaf quality. The results showed that the addition of rice straw and rape greens significantly enhanced urease activity, while had no significant effect on hydrogen peroxide activity in tobacco rhizosphere. Biolog analysis revealed that the addition of rice straw and rape greens significantly increased AWCD values and functional diversity indices in tobacco rhizosphere at the late growth stage. The principal component analysis indicated that the differences in carbon sources utilized by rhizosphere microbes were an important factor in the variation of microbial community in tobacco rhizosphere, in which sugars had the greatest effect. In addition, the addition of rice straw and rape greens significantly decreased reducing sugar content and sugar to nicotine ratio, improved the proportion of mid to high-grade leaves and thus increased the production value of tobacco leaves by 29.4% and 19.8%, respectively, as compared with the control. It is indicated that the proper use of organic materials as partial replacement of chemical fertilizers, can effectively improve the microbial environment of tobacco rhizosphere and tobacco leaf quality, thus can be recommended as an effective cultivation practice to high-quality tobacco leaf production.
Key words:  Organic materials  Rhizosphere microbes  Soil enzyme activity  Yield and quality of tobacco leaves

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