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滨海开发带土壤重金属分布特征及来源分析
崔闪闪1, 刘 庆1, 王 静2
1.青岛农业大学资源与环境学院;2.中国土地勘测规划院
摘要:
以江苏省大丰市为例,研究了土壤中8种重金属的空间分布特征及其与土地利用的关系,并通过主成分分析方法,对其可能的来源进行了探讨。结果表明:研究区8种土壤重金属Cu、Zn、Pb、Cd、Cr、As、Hg、Ni平均含量分别为17.40、74.38、18.14、0.105、55.58、8.33、0.074、25.73 mg/kg,不同采样点之间变异不大。沿垂直海岸线方向,随距海岸线距离增加,Cu、Zn、Pb、Cr、Hg、Ni 6种重金属含量逐渐升高,As含量逐渐降低,Cd含量则先升高、后降低。Cu、Zn、Pb、Cr、Hg、Ni 6种重金属均在水田土壤中含量最高,Cd在旱地土壤中含量最高,As则在滩涂土壤中含量最高。相关分析表明,土壤As含量与其他重金属元素含量的相关性均不显著,土壤Cd含量与Zn、Pb、Hg、Cr含量的相关性显著,与Cu、As、Ni含量的相关性不显著,其他各元素间相关性均达极显著水平。基于主成分分析结果,认为研究区土壤Cu、Zn、Pb、Cr、Hg、Ni 6种重金属元素含量受土壤母质影响较大,Cd含量与农业生产中磷肥施用关系密切,As含量的累积受磷肥施用的影响,但以水稻种植为主的耕作土壤As含量总体上呈下降趋势。本研究可为滨海开发带土地利用规划提供指导。
关键词:  重金属  含量与分布  滨海开发带  大丰市  主成分分析
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2019.02.020
分类号:X821
基金项目:国家自然科学基金重点项目(41330750)资助。
Distribution and Source Analysis of Soil Heavy Metals in Coast Development Zone
CUI Shanshan1, LIU Qing1, WANG Jing2
1.College of Resources and Environment,Qingdao Agricultural University;2.China Land Surveying and Planning Institute
Abstract:
A case study of Dafeng City of Jiangsu Province was carried out to explore soil heavy metal pollution in the coast development zone. A total of 162 topsoil samples were collected in 2014, the contents of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, As, Hg and Ni were measured, the spatial distribution characteristics and the correlation of heavy metals with the land use were studied, and the possible sources of these heavy metals were discussed by the principal component analysis. The results showed that the average contents of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, As, Hg and Ni were 17.40, 74.38, 18.14, 0.105, 55.58, 8.33, 0.074 and 25.73 mg/kg, respectively, and with the little coefficient variation between the different sampling points. Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Hg and Ni gradually increased in three areas of 0–15 m, 15–30 km and 30–45 km from the coast to inland along the vertical direction of the coastline, while As gradually decreased and Cd first increased and then decreased. The highest contents of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Hg and Ni were all in paddy soil, the highest content of Cd in dryland soil, and the highest content of As in beach land soil. As was not significantly correlated with the other heavy metals, Cd was extremely significantly correlated (P<0.01) with Zn, Pb, Hg and Cr, while Cd was not significantly correlated with Cu, As and Ni. The principal component analysis showed that the accumulation of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Hg and Ni in soil were more affected by soil parent material, the accumulation of Cd affected by phosphate fertilization, the accumulation of As also affected a little by phosphate fertilization, while rice planting may decrease the content of soil As. The findings can provide guidance for land use planning of coastal development zone.
Key words:  Heavy metals  Concentration and distribution  Coast development zone  Dafeng City  Principal component analysis

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