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生化抑制剂组合与施肥模式对黄泥田稻季田面水及 渗漏液氮素动态变化的影响
周旋1,2, 吴良欢1,2,3, 戴锋4
1 教育部环境修复与生态健康重点实验室 / 浙江大学环境与资源学院, 浙江杭州 310058;2 浙江省农业资源与环境重点实验室 / 浙江大学环境与资源学院, 浙江杭州 310058;3 养分资源高效开发与综合利用国家重点实验室 / 金正大生态工程集团股份有限公司;4.浙江奥复托化工有限公司
摘要:
采用二因素随机区组设计,研究生化抑制剂组合 (N-丁基硫代磷酰三胺 (NBPT)、N-丙基硫代磷酰三胺 (NPPT) 和2-氯-6-(三氯甲基)吡啶 (CP)) 与施肥模式(一次性施肥和分次施肥)互作对黄泥田稻季田面水和渗漏液氮(N)素浓度动态变化特征的影响。结果表明,黄泥田稻季田面水和渗漏液中N素形态分别以NH4+-N和NO3--N为主。基肥施用后,稻田田面水中NH4+-N和总氮(TN)浓度于第1 天达到峰值后降低,第6 天分别降为峰值的57.9% ~ 69.1%、41.9% ~ 59.0%(一次性施肥)和29.9% ~ 60.7%、60.9% ~ 69.7%(分次施肥);稻田渗漏液中NO3--N和TN浓度于第1 ~ 3 天达到峰值后降低,第6 天分别降为峰值的51.4% ~ 56.5%、56.6% ~ 61.6%(一次性施肥)和45.3% ~ 57.5%、51.1% ~ 59.6%(分次施肥)。不同施肥模式下,硝化抑制剂CP会提高田面水NH4+-N浓度,而脲酶抑制剂NBPT/NPPT或配施CP有效抑制脲酶活性,降低田面水NH4+-N峰值;CP显著降低渗漏液NO3--N浓度,且CP或配施NBPT/NPPT有效抑制硝化作用,降低渗漏液NO3--N峰值。新型脲酶抑制剂NPPT单独施用及与CP配施的稻田田面水和渗漏液N素浓度动态变化特征与NBPT相似。总之,生化抑制剂与适宜的氮肥运筹相结合更能有效延缓黄泥田中尿素水解,抑制硝化作用,减少N素径流和渗漏损失。
关键词:  脲酶抑制剂  硝化抑制剂  黄泥田  田面水  渗漏液
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2019.03.003
分类号:X522;S181
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD0800500)、苕溪流域农村污染治理技术集成与规模化工程示范项目(2014ZX07101-012)、国家重点基础研究发展计划项目(2015CB150502)、浙江省“三农六方”科研协作计划项目和浙江大学-浙江奥复托化工有限公司合作项目资助。
Effects of Combined Biochemical Inhibitors and Fertilization Models on Nitrogen Dynamics in Surface Water and Leachate from Yellow Clayey Paddy Field
Zhou Xuan1,2, Wu Lianghuan1,2,3, Dai Feng4
1.Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China;2. Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China;3.State Key Laboratory of Nutrition Resources Integrated Utilization, Kingenta Ecological Engineering Group Co., Ltd.;4.Zhejiang Aofutuo Chemical Co., Ltd
Abstract:
An experiment was conducted to study the interaction effects of biochemical inhibitor combinations (N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT), N-(n-propyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NPPT) and 2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl) pyridine (CP)) and fertilization models (one-off and three-time fertilization) on nitrogen (N) dynamic change characteristics in the surface water and leachate from yellow clayey paddy field using two factor randomized block design. The results showed that N losses of surface water and leachate from yellow clayey paddy field were given priority to NH4+-N and NO3--N, respectively. The peak values of NH4+-N and TN concentrations in the surface water from paddy field appeared within one day after basal application, and then decreased by 57.9% - 69.1% and 41.9% - 59.0% (one-off), 29.9% - 60.7% and 60.9% - 69.7% (three-time) till the 6th day, respectively. The peak values of NO3--N and TN concentrations in the leachates from paddy field appeared within 1 - 3 days after basal application, and then decreased by 51.4% - 56.5% and 56.6% - 61.6% (one-off), 45.3% - 57.5% and 51.1% - 59.6% (three-time) till the 6th day, respectively. Under different fertilization modes, CP increased NH4+-N concentration of surface water, and NBPT/NPPT or combined with CP effectively inhibited the activity of urease, and reduced the peak value of NH4+-N in the surface water. On the other hand, CP significantly decreased NO3--N concentration of the leachate, and CP or combined with NBPT/NPPT effectively inhibited nitrification, and reduced the peak value of NO3--N in the leachate. Application of a new urease inhibitor NPPT alone or combined with CP had the same effect on N dynamic change characteristics in the surface water and leachate from paddy field with NBPT. In conclusion, the integration and optimization of fertilization technique and combined inhibitors application can more effectively delay urea hydrolysis, inhibit nitrification, and reduce the runoff and leakage loss of N in yellow clayey paddy field.
Key words:  Urease inhibitor  Nitrification inhibitor  Yellow clayey field  Surface water  Leachate

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