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不同类型地膜覆盖对土壤水热及春玉米产量的影响
胡 敏1, 苗庆丰2, 史海滨2, 于庆峰1
1.内蒙古农业大学职业技术学院;2.内蒙古农业大学水利与土木建筑工程学院
摘要:
由于传统普通农用地膜覆盖造成的农田残留污染问题日益加重,因此发展使用可降解新型地膜势在必行。为进一步验证和筛选出适宜河套灌区玉米种植的地膜覆盖类型,试验设置普通地膜、生物地膜、液态地膜和不覆膜4个处理,对比研究了不同地膜覆盖类型对土壤水热状况以及春玉米产量和水分利用效率的影响。结果表明:春玉米生育前期,生物地膜与普通地膜覆盖处理的土壤温度无显著性差异,但5 ~ 15 cm深度土壤温度显著高于液态地膜和不覆膜处理,起到了良好的增温、保温效果。生育中后期,生物地膜出现破损,保温效果减弱,但一定的降温效应避免了春玉米遭受高温的危害。整个生育期内,生物地膜与普通地膜覆盖处理的土壤水分含量无显著性差异,但0 ~ 40 cm土层土壤水分含量显著高于液态地膜和不覆膜处理,为春玉米的生长提供了良好的水分条件。生物地膜和普通地膜覆盖处理显著提高了春玉米的产量和水分利用效率,且两者差异性不显著,但均显著高于液态地膜和不覆膜处理。综合分析,在河套灌区玉米种植过程中较适宜采用生物地膜来逐步替代普通地膜覆盖。
关键词:  地膜覆盖  土壤温度  土壤水分  产量  水分利用效率  春玉米
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2018.03.026
分类号:S513;S152.8
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51209114)、内蒙古农业大学青年骨干人才项目(No.2017XQG-4)、内蒙古农业大学高层次人才引进项目(NDYB2016-23)、内蒙古自治区自然科学基金项目(2012MS0303)、内蒙古自治区高等学校科学研究项目(NJZY12088)和 “十三五”国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0400205)资助。
Mulching Effects of Different Films on Soil Water, Heat and Yield of Spring Maize
HU Min1, MIAO Qingfeng2, SHI Haibin2, YU Qingfeng1
1.College of Vocational and Technical, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University;2.Water Conservancy and Civil Engineering College, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University
Abstract:
It is imperative to develop new degradable plastic film to prevent and reduce the pollution of farmland residual caused by traditional mulching films. In order to further validate and screen suitable mulch films for spring maize planting in Hetao Irrigation District of Inner Mongolia, four treatments including conventional film, biodegradable film, liquid film and non-film were designed to compare their effects on soil water and heat conditions, yields and water use efficiencies of spring maize. The results showed that no significant difference occurred in soil temperatures between biodegradable and conventional films in early growth stage of spring maize, but 5–15 cm soil temperatures under the two films were significantly higher than those under liquid film and non-film, indicating a good effect of warming and thermal insulation. The insulation effect was reduced due to the damage of biodegradable film in middle and late growth stages of spring maize, but it still kept cooling effect which reduced the harm of high temperature on spring maize. In the whole growth period of spring maize, there was no significant difference in soil moistures between biodegradable and conventional films, but 0–40 cm soil moistures under the two films were significantly higher than those under liquid film and non-film, providing good water conditions for the growth and development of spring maize. Biodegradable and conventional films significantly improved the yields and water use efficiencies of spring maize with no significant difference, but significantly higher than those under liquid film and non-film. In general, it is more appropriate to replace conventional film by biodegradable film in spring maize planting in Hetao irrigation area.
Key words:  Film mulching  Soil temperature  Soil water content  Yield  Water use efficiency  Spring maize

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