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不同饼肥配比对烟田土壤生物学特性及氮素转化的影响
李 亮1, 张佩佳2, 张 翔1, 王亚宁1, 毛家伟1, 司贤宗1, 索炎炎1, 余 琼1, 范艺宽3
1.河南省农业科学院植物营养与资源环境研究所;2.河南大学;3.河南省烟草公司
摘要:
施用芝麻饼肥是河南烟叶提质增效的一大特色,纯芝麻饼肥因量少价高在生产上的使用受到限制,而菜籽饼肥资源丰富且价格低廉,本研究拟通过比较不同菜籽和芝麻饼肥配比对土壤微生物区系、微生物生物量、酶活性及氮素转化的影响,明确能培肥烟田土壤及提升烟叶质量的合理饼肥配比,实现菜籽和芝麻饼肥资源的优化配置。结果表明:较其他处理,芝麻饼肥配比高的T5(化肥 + 30% 菜籽饼肥 + 70% 芝麻饼肥)和T6(化肥 + 100% 芝麻饼肥)处理在烤烟团棵期、旺长期和现蕾期土壤有较好的微生物增殖,但菜籽饼肥配比高的T2(化肥 + 100% 菜籽饼肥)和T3(化肥 + 70% 菜籽饼肥 + 30% 芝麻饼肥)处理在烤烟成熟期土壤微生物数量多于其他处理。各处理微生物生物量碳均在烤烟现蕾期出现峰值,微生物生物量氮和磷在团棵期有峰值。除过氧化氢酶外,脲酶、蛋白酶、磷酸酶及蔗糖酶活性在烤烟旺长期有峰值且T5和T6处理高于其他处理。腐熟芝麻饼配比高的T5和T6处理更符合优质烤烟生产的氮素营养特性,且两者间无显著差异。菜籽饼肥配比高的T2和T3处理氮素矿化速度慢,不利于烟叶后期的品质建成。因此,推荐以30% 菜籽饼肥 + 70% 芝麻饼肥来替代100% 芝麻饼肥处理,这样既可节约成本,又能有效改善烟田土壤生物学特性,平衡烤烟氮素营养,提升烟叶品质。
关键词:  饼肥  烟田  土壤微生物  微生物生物量  酶活性
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2019.04.004
分类号:S141.5
基金项目:河南省烟草专卖局科技项目(HYKJZD201503)、河南省烟草业转型升级科技攻关项目(2018410000270036)和中国烟草总公司科技项目(110201502013)资助。
Effects of Different Ratios of Cake Fertilizers on Soil Biological Characteristics and Nitrogen Transformation in Tobacco Field
LI Liang1, ZHANG Peijia2, ZHANG Xiang1, WANG Yaning1, MAO Jiawei1, SI Xianzong1, SUO Yanyan1, YU Qiong1, FAN Yikuan3
1.Institute of Plant Nutrition Agricultural Resources and Environmental Science,Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences;2.Henan University;3.Henan Tobacco Company
Abstract:
The application of sesame cake fertilizer can improve significantly the yield and quality of tobacco in Henan, but its wide use in tobacco planting is hindered by the high cost, however rapeseed cake fertilizer is more abundant and cheaper, and is possibly used to partly replaced sesame cake fertilizer for tobacco planting. In this study, the different ratios of rapeseed and sesame cake fertilizers were designed and their effects on microbial flora and biomass, enzyme activities and nitrogen conversion were studied in order to determine the reasonable ratio of the two cake fertilizers for fertilizing soil and improving tobacco quality. The results showed that compared with other treatments, the treatments of T5 (inorganic fertilizer + 30% rapeseed cake fertilizer + 70% sesame cake fertilizer) and T6 (inorganic fertilizer + 100% sesame cake fertilizer) had better microbial proliferation in the resettling, vigorous growing and budding stages, but the treatments of T2 (chemical fertilizer + 100% rapeseed cake fertilizer) and T3 (chemical fertilizer + 70% rapeseed cake fertilizer + 30% sesame cake fertilizer) had more microorganisms than those other treatments in the mature stage. The microbial biomass carbon reached the peak in the budding stage, but the microbial biomass nitrogen and phosphorus reached the peaks in the resettling stage. The activities of urease, protease, phosphatase and invertase were all significantly increased in the vigorous growing stage except for catalase, and the treatments of T5 and T6 had higher enzyme activities than other treatments. The treatments of T5 and T6 were more consistent with nitrogen nutrition characteristics in high-quality tobacco production and no significant difference between the two treatments. The treatments of T2 and T3 had slow nitrogen mineralization which was not satisfied with the demand for nitrogen absorption by tobacco. Therefore, the ratio of 30% rapeseed cake fertilizer + 70% sesame cake fertilizer is recommended to replace 100% sesame cake fertilizer in tobacco planting because it can save the cost, effectively improve the soil biological characteristics, balance the nitrogen nutrition and improve the quality of tobacco.
Key words:  Cake fertilizer  Tobacco field  Soil microorganism  Microbial biomass  Enzyme activity

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