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不同改良剂对滨海重度盐渍土质量和肥料利用效率的影响
高 婧, 杨劲松, 姚荣江, 谢文萍, 王相平
土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所)
摘要:
为揭示不同改良剂对江苏滨海围垦滩涂区重度盐渍土改良与肥料利用的效应,通过田间试验研究生物质炭、石膏、EM菌剂和黄腐酸4种改良剂对土壤表层盐分的时序动态、大麦产量和肥料利用效率的影响。结果表明:盐分对于作物生长和肥料利用具有明显的抑制作用,各改良剂均有效提高了重度盐渍土土壤肥力与作物产量。其中,低量生物质炭处理(10 t/hm2)和高量黄腐酸处理(3 t/hm2)整体效果较好。经低量生物质炭处理后,土壤表层(0 ~ 20 cm)盐分相对于单施化肥处理降低106%,作物产量增加79%,氮肥利用率提高99%;高量黄腐酸处理较单施化肥处理土壤表层盐分降低95%,作物产量增加68%,氮肥利用率提高93%。该结果表明适宜用量的生物质炭和黄腐酸均可用于滨海滩涂重度盐渍土的加速治理培育和肥料利用效率的提升。
关键词:  滨海盐渍土  大麦  土壤盐分  肥料利用效率
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2019.03.015
分类号:S164.5+2
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0200303, 2016YFC0501309, 2016YFC0501201)、中国科学院重点部署项目(KFZD-SW-112- 03-02)、国家自然科学基金委员会–山东联合基金重点支持项目(U1806215)、江苏省重点研发计划(现代农业)重点项目(BE2015337, BE2017337)、中国科学院南京土壤研究所“一三五”计划和领域前沿项目(ISSASIP1633)资助。
Effects of Different Soil Amendments on Properties and Fertilizer Utilization Efficiency for Coastal Heavily-salinized Soil
GAO Jing, YANG Jinsong, YAO Rongjiang, XIE Wenping, WANG Xiangping
State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Science
Abstract:
A field experiment was carried out to study the effects of charcoal, gypsum, fulvic acid and effective microorganisms on topsoil salinity of heavily-salinized soil, fertilizer utilization efficiency and barley yield in coastal reclamation area of Jiangsu Province. Results were showed that salt content greatly threated the growth and nutrient utilization efficiency of barley. The four modifiers improved effectively the quality of the heavy salinized soil and the yield of barley, and among of four amendment treatments, the biochar treatment of low dosage (10 t/hm2) and fulvic acid treatment of high dosage (3 t/hm2) had the better effects. The treatment of low dosage of biochar decreased salt content in 0 – 20 cm depth by 106%, increased barley yield by 79% and nitrogen utilization efficiency by 99%; The treatment of high dosage of fulvic acid decreased salt content in 0 – 20 cm depth by 95%, increased barley yield by 68% and nitrogen utilization efficiency by 93%. The above results prove that suitable dosage of biochar and fulvic acid can accelerate the cultivation and fertilizer utilization efficiency of the coastal heavily-salinized soil.
Key words:  Coastal heavily-salinized soil  Barley  Soil salinity  Fertilizer utilization efficiency

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