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不同肥力红壤氮磷渗漏淋失特征及猪粪安全消纳量的研究
杨健伟1, 周志高2, 张 迪3, 李仁英1, 吴洪生1
1.南京信息工程大学应用气象学院;2.中国科学院南京土壤研究所;3.南京晓庄学院
摘要:
本文采用盆栽试验,在自然降雨条件下,监测了不同化肥用量与猪粪梯度用量配施条件下,两种不同肥力红黏土母质红壤在花生-萝卜轮作模式下的氮、磷渗漏淋失特征,土壤养分积累和作物产量变化,据此估算不同肥力红壤的猪粪安全消纳量。结果表明,养分渗漏淋失以NO3- -N为主,基本无磷素淋失风险。渗漏水中NO3- -N高峰值出现在播种施肥一个月以后,此时表现出随着猪粪用量增加而增加的趋势,其后NO3- -N浓度迅速下降且均低于地下水(III类)质量标准限值。在渗漏水NO3- -N高峰期,高肥力红壤渗漏水NO3- -N浓度一般都显著高于低肥力红壤,在配施化肥和高用量猪粪条件下,容易出现超标风险。猪粪施用容易引起土壤有效磷积累,且高肥力红壤的积累明显高于低肥力红壤,但无机氮积累不明显。随着猪粪用量的增加,低肥力红壤的花生产量一直呈增加的趋势,但高肥力红壤花生产量在猪粪用量达到一定水平后趋于稳定。综合考虑猪粪施用对地下水环境、土壤环境和作物产量的影响,得出在不配施化肥条件下,低肥力与高肥力红黏土红壤的猪粪磷安全消纳量分别为P400、100 kg/(hm2·a)(相当于含水量750 g/kg堆腐猪粪91.2、22.8 t/(hm2·a));在常规化肥用量减半条件下,低肥力和高肥力红壤的猪粪磷安全消纳量分别为P400、25 kg/(hm2·a)(相当于含水量750 g/kg堆腐猪粪91.2、5.7 t/(hm2·a))。在南方红壤地区,猪粪应多施用于低肥力红黏土红壤。
关键词:  土壤肥力  红壤  猪粪  安全消纳量
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2019.02.014
分类号:X713, S141
基金项目:公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201203050)和中国科学院知识创新项目(ISSASIP1632)资助。
Nitrogen and Phosphorus Leaching Under Pig Manure Application and Safe Manure Digestion Capacity of Red Clay Soils of Different Fertilities
YANG Jianwei1, ZHOU Zhigao2, ZHANG Di3, LI Renying1, WU Hongsheng1
1.Applied Meteorology College, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology;2.Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences;3.Nanjing Xiaozhuang University
Abstract:
By using a pot experiment under natural rainfall, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) leaching, nutrient accumulation, and crop yield under peanut-radish rotation in two red clay soils of different fertilities (high and low) which received pig manure at gradient dosages combined with zero, halved or conventional rates of chemical fertilizers were monitored, and thereby safe pig manure digestion capacities of the two red soils were estimated. The results showed that nutrient leaching was dominated by nitrate N and no risk was for P leaching. Nitrate N concentration in leachate peaked about one month after seed sowing and fertilization, increasing with the increase of pig manure application rate, and afterwards declined rapidly below the limit of Class III groundwater quality standard of China. In the peak time, nitrate N concentration in leachate was significantly higher in the high-fertility red soil than in the low-fertility one, and the risk of exceeding nitrate N limit was high for the high-fertility red soil under the conditions of high rates of pig manure in combination with chemical fertilizers. The application of pig manure easily led to bioavailable P accumulation in soil, more pronounced in the high-fertility soil, but no significant accumulation for inorganic N in both soils. Peanut yield of the low-fertility red soil increased with the increasing of pig manure application rate, while that of the high-fertility one leveled off over a certain rate of pig manure. Considering all the effects of pig manuring on groundwater (leaching), soil and crop production, it is estimated that the low– and high–fertility red clay soils have safe pig manure digestion capacities of P 400 and 100 kg/(hm2·a), respectively (equivalent to wet composted pig manure of 91.2 and 22.8 t/(hm2·a), respectively) under the condition of no chemical fertilizers, and P 400 and 25 kg/(hm2·a), respectively (equivalent to wet composted pig manure of 91.2 and 5.7 t/(hm2·a), respectively) under the condition of halved chemical fertilizers. It is advised that pig manure be applied in large part to low–fertility red clay soils in southern regions of China.
Key words:  Soil fertility  Red clay soil  Pig manure  Safe digestion capacity

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