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铅镉高污染土壤的钝化材料筛选及其修复效果初探
郝金才1, 李柱2, 吴龙华2, 倪才英1, 骆永明2
1.江西师范大学生命科学学院;2.中国科学院南京土壤研究所土壤环境污染修复中国科学院重点实验室
摘要:
本研究以重金属高污染农田土壤(全Pb含量为1 277 mg/kg,全Cd含量为39.0 mg/kg)为研究对象,通过土培试验和玉米苗期盆栽试验,探讨海泡石、石灰、腐植酸、钙镁磷肥、磷矿粉、生物质炭等常用稳定材料不同剂量及复配组合对高污染土壤重金属的钝化修复效应。土培试验结果表明,石灰对Pb和Cd钝化效果最好,其次是海泡石,但两者表现为较高添加量处理间没有显著差异;而低剂量生物质炭和腐植酸显著增加土壤有效态Pb和Cd含量,高剂量生物质炭具有较好的钝化效果。盆栽试验表明,海泡石与石灰配施钝化效果较好,与对照相比,土壤氯化钙提取态Pb、Cd含量分别降低了97.5%、81.4%;玉米根和地上部Cd含量分别降低48.5%、34.0%,Pb含量分别降低35.6%、29.6%;但海泡石与磷材料配施显著增加玉米根Pb含量,对玉米Cd吸收没有显著影响。以上结果表明,重金属高污染农田土壤添加合适的改良剂,可较大幅度降低土壤重金属有效性和植物重金属吸收性。
关键词:  农田土壤  重金属  高污染  稳定修复  玉米  有效性
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2019.04.017
分类号:X53
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41325003,41501348)资助。
Preliminary Study on Cadmium and Lead Stabilization in Soil Highly Polluted with Heavy Metals Using Different Stabilizing Agents
Hao Jincai1, Li Zhu2, Wu Longhua2, Ni Caiying1, Luo Yongming2
1.College of Life Science, Jiangxi Normal University;2.Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Abstract:
By soil culture and pot experiments, an agricultural soil seriously polluted by heavy metals (total concentrations of Pb and Cd are 1 277 mg/kg and 39.0 mg/kg, respectively) was used to study soil metal stabilization with in incubatin experiment the amendments of sepiolite, lime, humic acid, calcium magnesium phosphate, phosphate rock powder and biochar. The results showed that the addition of different amendments changed soil pH and metal availability, lime addition induced highest reduction in soil available Pb and Cd concentrations, followed by sepiolite, but there was no significant difference in soil metal availabilities between treatments with high doses of lime or sepiolite; the low dose biochar (0.1 g/kg) significantly increased soil available Pb and Cd concentrations, while high dose biochar decreased the metal availability. In pot experiment the addition of mixture of sepiolite-lime gave the highest reducing effects on soil pH and available metals. compared to control soil, the addition of sepiolite and lime together decreased soil Pb and Cd availabilities by 97.5 and 81.4%, respectively, and Cd and Pb concentrations in roots and shoots decreased by 48.5% and 34.0%, and 35.6% and 29.6%, respectively; but the addition of mixture of sepiolite-phosphorated materials significantly increased Pb concentration in roots but decreased Pb concentrations in shoots, and had no significant effects on Cd concentrations in plants. The above results show that adding appropriate soil amendments can significantly reduce heavy metal availability and plant metal uptake in heavy metal severely contaminated soil.
Key words:  Agricultural soil  Heavy metal  High pollution  Stabilization  Corn  Availability

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