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温度和水分对典型香型烟区植烟土壤氮素矿化的影响
高真真1, 胡坤1, 王俊1, 杨惠娟1, 段卫东2, 李洪亮3, 史宏志1
1.河南农业大学;2.河南中烟工业有限责任公司;3.许昌烟草公司襄县分公司
摘要:
为探究典型香型烟区植烟土壤氮素矿化特征及其与温度和水分的关系,采用室内培养试验研究了土壤温度(15、28、37℃)和土壤相对含水量(50%、65%、80% 田间持水量)对云南大理、贵州毕节、河南许昌3个典型香型产区植烟土壤氮素矿化的影响。结果表明:不同地区植烟土壤矿质氮和矿化速率变化规律与温度和水分密切相关。3个产区植烟土壤的矿质氮含量和矿化速率均随着温度的升高而升高,在同一温度条件下,以土壤有机质含量较高的云南大理土壤矿化量较大,有机质含量较低的河南许昌土壤矿化量较小。不同地区植烟土壤含水量与氮素矿化的关系不尽相同,土壤相对黏重的贵州毕节土壤以50% 田间持水量处理土壤氮素矿化量和矿化速率最大,以80% 田间持水量处理最不利于氮素矿化;而质地相对较轻的河南许昌土壤和云南大理土壤均为在65% 田间持水量条件下最有利于氮素矿化,以50% 田间持水量处理氮素矿化量较小。基于一级动力学方程的模拟,3个植烟土壤的潜在矿化氮库(N0)都随温度的增加而提高,总体以28 ~ 37℃的培养温度较为适宜,低于15℃不利于土壤有机氮的矿化,3个植烟土壤的N0以云南大理最高,河南许昌最低;土壤矿化速率常数(K)以云南大理最大。土壤相对含水量也对N0有一定影响,且土壤温度和含水量对不同土壤氮素矿化量和矿化速率均存在显著的互作影响,合理调控土壤温度和土壤相对含水量,可以有效调节不同生态烟区土壤氮素矿化动态变化。
关键词:  烟草  土壤  氮素矿化  矿化速率  温度  水分
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2019.03.004
分类号:S152.3;S153.1
基金项目:国家烟草专卖局浓香型特色优质烟叶开发重大专项(110201101001(TS-01))和河南中烟工业有限责任公司特色烟叶开发项目资助。
Effects of Temperature and Moisture on Soil Nitrogen Mineralization in Typical Aroma Tobacco-growing Areas
GAO Zhenzhen1, HU Kun1, WANG Jun1, YANG Huijuan1, DUAN Weidong2, LI Hongliang3, SHI Hongzhi1
1.Henan Agricultural University;2.China Tobacco Henan Industrial Limited Corporation;3.Xuchang tobacco company Xiang County Branch
Abstract:
In order to explore the characteristics of nitrogen mineralization in tobacco planting soil and its relationship with temperature and water, effects of the soil temperature (15, 28, 37 ℃) and the relative water content (50%, 65%, 80% field capacity) on nitrogen mineralization of tobacco growing soils in three typical aromatic producing areas of Dali, Bijie and Xuchang were studied in laboratory culture. The results showed that soil mineral nitrogen and nitrogen mineralization rate were closely related with temperature and moisture, sharing the increasing trend with temperature increasing. Under the same temperature, nitrogen mineralization was the highest for soil in Dali due to its highest SOM content, while nitrogen mineralization was the lowest for soil in Xuchang due to its lowest SOM content. The relationship between soil moisture and nitrogen mineralization were different in the three different ecological areas, the clayey soil in Bijie had the highest and lowest nitrogen mineralization and mineralization rate under 50% and 80% field capacity, respectively, meanwhile, the coarse-textured soils in Xuchang and Dali had the highest and lowest nitrogen mineralization under 65% and 50% field capacity , respectively. Based on the simulation of first-order kinetic equation, the potential mineralized nitrogen pools (N0) of three soils increased with the increase of temperature. Generally, 28-37℃ was more suitable for nitrogen mineralization while temperature below 15℃ was unconducive to nitrogen mineralization. N0 was the highest for soil in Dali but the lowest for soil in Xuchang while nitrogen mineralization rate constant (K) was the highest for soil in Dali. Soil moisture also had a certain impact on N0 , and the above results showed that soil temperature and moisture have significant interaction on nitrogen mineralization and mineralization rate, thus, reasonable regulation of soil temperature and moisture can effectively control the dynamic changes of soil nitrogen mineralization in different ecological tobacco-planting areas.
Key words:  Tobacco  Soil  Nitrogen mineralization  Mineralization rate  Temperature  Moisture

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