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连续5年配施有机肥茶园土壤活性铝含量变化状况
吴志丹1, 江福英1, 尤志明1, 李 刚2, 翁伯琦3
1.福建省农业科学院茶叶研究所;2.中国科学院城市环境研究所;3.福建省红壤山地农业生态过程重点实验室
摘要:
通过5 a(2009—2013年)田间定位试验,研究配施不同比例有机肥(养猪场发酵床垫料)对茶园土壤交换性Al3+ (Ex-Al) 、单聚体羟基铝(Al(OH)2+Al(OH)2+,Hy-Al)、酸溶无机铝(Al(OH)30,Col-Al)和腐殖酸铝(HA-Al)分布特征及茶叶铝含量的影响,探讨配施有机肥改良茶园酸化土壤及降低茶叶铝含量的可行性。试验设置有机肥替代化肥比例0(CK)、25%、50%、75% 和100% 5个处理。结果表明:连续5 a配施有机肥处理茶园0 ~ 20 cm土层土壤pH提高0.27 ~ 1.05个单位,有机质含量提高8.64% ~ 30.71%;20 ~ 40 cm土层土壤pH提高0.16 ~ 0.50个单位,有机质含量提高0.94% ~ 14.84%,提高幅度均随着有机肥施用比例的增加而增大。茶园土壤活性铝总量(ΣAl)随着有机肥料配施比例的增加呈下降趋势;土壤 Ex-Al、Al-HA含量及其占ΣAl的比例随着有机肥料配施比例的增加呈下降趋势,而Hy-Al含量及其占ΣAl的比例则呈现上升趋势;Col-Al含量随有机肥配施比例的变化不显著,而其占ΣAl的比例则随有机肥施用比例的升高而升高。各处理茶叶铝含量为820.04 ~ 940.27 mg/kg,配施有机肥处理对茶叶铝含量的影响不显著。配施有机肥条件下,土壤pH和有机质含量升高,促进土壤Ex-Al向 Hy-Al转化,而对茶叶铝含量的影响不显著,通过配施有机肥改良土壤酸度来降低茶叶铝含量的可行性需要进一步探讨。
关键词:  有机肥    土壤    pH  有机质
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2019.06.004
分类号:S151.9
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0200900)、国家农业产业技术体系项目(CARS-23)、中央引导地方科技发展专项(2016L3004)、福建省科技重大专项(2017NZ0002)、福建省公益类科研院所专项(2014R1012-7,2016R1011-4)、福建省自然科学基金项目(2015J01150)和福建省农业科学院科技创新团队项目(STIT2017-1-3)资助。
Variation of Active Aluminum Content in Tea Garden Soil with Manure Applied for 5 Years
WU Zhidan1, JIANG Fuying1, YOU Zhiming1, LI Gang2, WENG Boqi3
1.Tea Research Institute, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences;2.Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences;3.Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Agro-Ecological Processes in Hilly Red Soil
Abstract:
A 5a (2009—2013) experiment was carried out to study the effects of different proportions of manure (litters in the microbial fermentation bed in pig farm) and chemical fertilizer on the distribution of active aluminum forms (exchangeable aluminum [Al3+, Ex-Al], unimer hydroxyl aluminum [Al(OH)2+ and Al(OH)2+, Hy-Al], acid-soluble aluminum [Al(OH)30, Col-Al], humic acid aluminum[HA-Al]) in tea garden soil and aluminum concentration in tea, and then the feasibility of applying manure to improve acidified soil in tea garden and reduce Al concentration in tea was also discussed. Five treatments were designed: total chemical fertilizer without manure (CK), 25% of chemical fertilizer replaced by manure, 50% of chemical fertilizer replaced by manure, 75% of chemical fertilizer replaced by manure, and total manure. The results showed that, compared with CK, pH and organic carbon increased by 0.27-1.05 units and 8.64%-30.71% in 0-20 cm soils and by 0.16-0.50 units and 0.94%-14.84% in 20-40 cm soils in the treatments with organic manure, respectively. With the increase of manure proportion, the contents of of total active aluminum (ΣAl) in tea garden soil showed a decreasing trend, the contents of Ex-Al, HA-Hl and their ratios in active ΣAl were decreased, the contents of Hy-Al and its ratio in active ΣAl were increased, and the content of Col-Al remained stable but its ratio in active ΣAl was enhanced. Al concentration in tea was ranged from 820.04 to 940.27 mg/kg in all treatments, but no significant difference was found in Al concentration in tea between different fertilization treatments. In conclusion, the application of organic fertilizer can increase soil pH and organic matter, thus promote the transformation of exchangeable Al3+(Ex-Al) to hydroxyl aluminum(Hy-Al), but have no significant effect on Al concentration in tea. So, the feasibility needs further study to reduce Al concentration in tea by improving soil acidity with the application of organic manure.
Key words:  Organic manure  Tea  Soils  Al  pH  Organic matter

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