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重庆主城区空气降尘中重金属的特点及其在表层土壤中的累积量研究
王 佳,刘 斌,肖柏林,李余杰,张田硕,吴 璜,张玉婷
重庆大学三峡库区生态环境教育部重点实验室 重庆 400030
摘要:
探索不同功能区空气降尘中重金属通量特征并对其进行污染评价,对于了解空气降尘输入对土壤中重金属累积影响具有重要意义。对重庆主城的居住区(JZ)、文教区(WJ)、商业区(SY)、郊区(JQ)、交通区(JT)和工业-居住混合区(GJ)逐月进行空气降尘通量和Cr、Ni、Cd、Pb含量的测定。结果表明,工业-居住混合区的空气降尘通量平均值最高,文教区的最低。6类功能区秋季的降尘量相对较低。Cd、Cr、Ni和Pb的平均降尘量在不同功能区分布存在差异。空气降尘中4种重金属元素的平均含量为:Cd 2.14 mg/kg、Cr 66.36 mg/kg、Ni 27.69 mg/kg、Pb 98.33 mg/kg。6类功能区降尘中Cd、Cr、Ni和Pb 4种重金属含量一般冬季较高。地积累指数法的分析表明降尘中Cd污染最严重。经推算,以空气降尘的方式向土壤中输入的重金属,使重庆主城区土壤中Cd、Cr、Ni和Pb等4种重金属元素的浓度在累积100 a后仍将低于《土壤环境质量标准》中的二级标准。土壤中重金属元素增加速度最快为Cd,其次为Pb和Cr,Ni的增长为负值。
关键词:  重庆  空气降尘  重金属  污染评价  土壤
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2019.06.016
分类号:X53
基金项目:中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目(106112014CDJZR210013,106112012CDJZR210012)资助。
Characteristics of Heavy Metals in Atmospheric Deposition and Its Impact on Their Accumulation in Soil of Chongqing
WANG Jia1, LI Yujie2, LIU Bin2, XIAO Bolin2, ZHANG Tianshuo2, WU Huang2, ZHANG Yuting2
1.Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region’s Eco-environment of Ministry of Education,Chongqing University,Chongqing,China;2.Reservoir Region’s Eco-environment of Ministry of Education,Chongqing University,Chongqing,China
Abstract:
It is crucial to explore the characteristics of heavy metals in atmospheric deposition in different functional areas and to evaluate the pollution for understanding the influences of atmospheric deposition on heavy metal accumulation in soil. Samples of atmospheric deposition were collected monthly from the residential, educational, commercial, suburban, transportation and industrial-residential areas and the fluxes of atmospheric deposition were calculated and the contents of Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb were measured. The results showed that the average flux of atmospheric deposition was the highest in industrial-residential area but the lowest in the educational areas. The atmospheric deposition in the 6 functional areas were lower in autumn. There were differences in the average contents of Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb in the atmospheric deposition between different functional areas. The average concentrations of the four heavy metals in the atmospheric deposition were 2.14 mg/kg for Cd, 66.36 mg/kg for Cr, 27.69 mg/kg for Ni, and 98.33 mg/kg for Pb, respectively. The concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb in the atmospheric deposition in the 6 functional areas were generally higher in winter. The geoaccumulation indexes indicated that Cd pollution was most serious in the atmospheric deposition. It is forecasted that the concentrations of the four heavy metals in soil of Chongqing will remain below the 2nd grade of Soil Environmental Quality Standard after 100 a accumulation from the atmospheric deposition, among of which, Cd will increase the fastest, followed by Pb and Cr, but Ni will decrease gradually.
Key words:  Chongqing  Atmospheric deposition  Heavy metals  Pollution evaluation  Soil

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