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氮肥用量对膜下滴灌冬马铃薯产量和经济效益的影响
李燕山
云南省农业科学院经济作物研究所
摘要:
通过田间试验研究不同氮肥用量对膜下滴灌冬马铃薯生长、产量和经济效益的影响,通过分析马铃薯产量、经济与农学效益随氮肥用量的变化趋势提出冬马铃薯生产上适宜的氮肥用量范围。结果表明,膜下滴灌条件下,马铃薯生育期随氮肥用量的增加逐渐延长,马铃薯叶面积指数、单株结薯数、单株薯重和块茎产量随氮肥用量的增加呈先增加后降低的趋势,均在345 kg/hm2施氮量时最高,且株高和大薯重高于其他处理。施氮量在0 ~ 420 kg/hm2时对马铃薯出苗率影响不大,而施氮量达495 kg/hm2时出苗率和块茎产量显著降低;施氮效益、施氮纯收入、氮肥产投比和农学效率在施氮量195 ~ 345 kg/hm2时均随氮肥用量的增加而增加,超过345 kg/hm2施氮量时逐渐下降,施氮量为495 kg/hm2时显著降低。马铃薯产量对氮肥用量的反应通过二次多项式模型分析得出,马铃薯最高产量施氮量和经济最佳施氮量分别为341.7、327.1 kg/hm2,而最高产量与经济最佳产量二者相差不大。因此,在本试验条件下,膜下滴灌冬马铃薯适宜的氮肥用量应该控制在270 ~ 327.1 kg/hm2之间,可获得较高的产量和经济效益。
关键词:  冬马铃薯  膜下滴灌  氮肥用量  产量  经济效益
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.01.004
分类号:S562
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD0200800),现代农业产业技术体系建设专项资金项目(CARS-10-P07),云南省应用基础研究青年项目(2017FD016),云南省马铃薯工程技术研究工程中心项目(2011DH018)和云南省重点新产品开发计划项目(2013BB05)资助。
Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer Rate on Yield and Economic Benefit of Winter Potato with Drip Irrigation Under Mulch
liyanshan
Industrial Crops Reseach Institute
Abstract:
A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates on growth, yield and economic benefit of winter potato with drip irrigation under mulch and to put forward the appropriate rate of N fertilizer in winter potato production. The results showed that under the condition of drip irrigation under mulch, with the increase of N application rate, the growth period of potato was prolonged while the leaf area index of potato and the number of tubers per plant, potato weight per plant and tuber yield increased first and then decreased, all of which were the highest at N application rate of 345 kg/hm2, and the plant height and large tuber weight were both higher than those of other treatments. The emergence rate of potato changed little when N application rate ranged from 0-420 kg/hm2, while the emergence rate and tuber yield of potato decreased significantly when N application rate reached 495 kg/hm2. Benefit and net income of N application, input-output ratio and agronomic efficiency of N fertilizer increased with the increase of N application rate in the range of 195-345 kg/hm2, but decreased gradually when nitrogen application rate was beyond 345 kg/hm2, and reached the lowest when N application rate was 495 kg/hm2. Quadratic polynomial model showed that the maximum yield of N application rate and economic optimum nitrogen application rate were 341.7 kg/hm2 and 327.1 kg/hm2, respectively, and showed no significant difference. Therefore, under the condition of the experiment, the suitable application rate of nitrogen fertilizer for winter potato should be controlled within 270-327.1 kg/hm2 for the higher yield and economic benefit.
Key words:  Winter potato  Drip irrigation under mulch  Nitrogen fertilizer rate  Yield  Economic benefit

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