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磷锌配施对花生不同生育期磷锌吸收与分配的影响
索炎炎1, 张翔1, 司贤宗1, 余琼1, 毛家伟1, 李亮1, 李国平1, 王亚宁1, 余辉2
1.河南省农业科学院植物营养与资源环境研究所;2.正阳县花生研究所
摘要:
对植物体内磷–锌复杂的交互关系,采用田间试验,研究了磷锌配施对花生不同生育期磷锌吸收、积累、分配及花生产量的影响。结果表明:施磷和施锌均显著提高了花生地上部干重和产量。相同锌用量下,施磷提高了花生地上部、花生壳和花生仁的磷含量和积累量,但降低了其锌含量、磷锌收获指数和荚果磷利用率。其中,施磷对地上部锌含量的降低程度取决于生育期和锌施用水平。随施磷量的增加,在花生苗期、花针前期及不施锌肥时,花生地上部锌含量显著降低;而在花针后期、结荚期和成熟期及施锌肥时,花生地上部锌含量的降低程度逐渐减弱,表明磷-锌拮抗作用在花生生育前期强于生育后期,不施锌肥强于施锌肥。施磷对花生锌积累量的影响取决于锌供应水平和花生生长部位。不施锌肥时,仅适量供磷促进了地上部锌积累,而施锌肥时,适量供磷和高量供磷均促进了地上部锌积累;不同于地上部,高量供磷显著降低了花生壳和花生仁锌积累量。相同磷用量下,增施锌肥对整个生育期花生各部位磷含量和花生生育后期磷积累量无显著影响,显著增加了花生苗期和花针前期地上部及成熟期花生壳和花生仁的磷积累量、磷收获指数和荚果磷利用率。总之,花生体内磷–锌相互作用大小受其生育期、生长部位和锌供应水平的影响,且施磷对锌的影响较施锌对磷的影响大。
关键词:  磷锌配施  花生  生育期  磷–锌关系
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.01.009
分类号:S143.7+2;S565.2
基金项目:河南省花生产业技术体系“耕作栽培岗位”项目(S2012-05-G02)和河南省科技攻关项目(172102110081,192102110081)资助。
Effects of Combined Application of Phosphorus and Zinc on Phosphorus and Zinc Absorption and Distribution in Peanuts at Different Growth Stages
suoyanyan1, Zhang Xiang1, Si Xianzong1, Yu Qiong1, Mao Jiawei1, Li Liang1, Li Guoping1, Wang Yaning1, Yu Hui2
1.Institute of Plant Nutrient, Resources and Environment, Henan academy of Agricultural Sciences;2.Institute of peanut, Zhengyang
Abstract:
For the complex relationship between phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) in plants, a field experiment was conducted to study the combined effects of phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) fertilizers on P, Zn absorption, accumulation, distribution at different growth stages and yield of peanut. The results showed that the shoot dry weight and peanut yield were significantly increased under both P and Zn application. Under the same amount of Zn, compared with no P application, P content and accumulation in peanut shoots, shells and kernels were increased, but Zn content, P and Zn harvest indexes and pod Putilization efficiency were decreased under P application. The reduction of Zn content in shoots depended on the growth stage and Zn application rate. With the increase of P rate, Zn content in peanuts was significantly decreased at the seedling stage, pre-flower stage and without Zn application, the reduction of Zn content in shoots was gradually weaken at the late stage of anthesis, podding stage, maturity stage and the application of Zn fertilizer, indicating that the antagonistic effect of P and Zn was stronger in the earlier growth stage than that in the latter one, no application Zn fertilizer than the application of Zn fertilizer. The effect of P application on Zn accumulation in peanuts depended on Zn rate and the growing part of peanut. Zn accumulation in shoots was promoted by the medium P rate under no Zn application, while under Zn application, Zn accumulation in shoots was promoted by the medium and high P rate. Unlike the aboveground part, Zn accumulation in shells and kernels were significantly decreased under high P rate. Under the same rate of P, Zn fertilizer had no significant effect on P content in all parts at the whole growth stage and P accumulation at the late growth stage, but P accumulation in shoots at seedling stage and pre-flower stage, P accumulation in shells and kernels at early maturing stage, P harvest index and pod P efficiency were significantly increased. In short, the interaction of P and Zn is affected by peanut growth stage, growing parts and Zn application rate, and the effect of P on Zn was stronger than the effect of Zn on P.
Key words:  Combined application of phosphorus and zinc  Peanut  Growth stages  Phosphorus and zinc relationship

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