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机械起垄侧条施肥对大白菜产量和氨挥发的影响
姜振萃, 闵炬, 施卫明
中国科学院南京土壤研究所
摘要:
通过两年田间试验,探究大白菜机械起垄侧条施肥合适的垄宽,并进一步研究在最适垄宽下该技术对大白菜产量、经济效益和氨挥发损失的影响。第一年试验设置4个处理:机械宽垄侧条施肥习惯施氮量处理(N480+MW)、机械宽垄侧条施肥减氮30% 处理(N340+MW)、机械窄垄侧条施肥减氮30% 处理(N340+MN)、人工宽垄习惯施氮量处理(N480+HW),第二年选用55 cm宽垄设置4个处理:人工起垄不施化肥氮处理(N0+HW)、人工起垄习惯施氮量处理(N480+HW)、人工起垄减氮30% 处理(N340+HW)和机械起垄侧条施肥减氮30% 处理(N340+MW)。研究结果表明:55 cm宽垄比30 cm窄垄种植可以提高大白菜产量15.4% ~ 17.8%,在55 cm宽垄种植模式下机械起垄侧条施肥技术可以在减肥30% 基础上获得最高生物产量、商品产量和净经济效益,分别为78.5 t/hm2 、43.2 t/hm2 和30 959元/hm2 。与N480+HW、N340+HW和N0+HW处理相比,N340+MW处理生物产量分别增加8.8%、15.2% 和58.3%,商品产量分别增加7.4%、16.4% 和50.1%。与N480+HW相比,N340+MW和N340+HW处理的净收益分别增加了40.8% 和1.3%。N340+MW处理大白菜生长季累积氨挥发损失为30.0 kg/hm2 ,与N340+HW和N480+HW处理相比显著降低51.1% 和70.5%。综合研究表明,机械起垄侧条施肥技术可以实现大白菜种植的减施增效,提高蔬菜生产的经济效益。
关键词:  机械起垄  侧条施肥  经济效益  氨挥发  大白菜
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.01.002
分类号:S43.1
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0801100)和江苏省农业科技自主创新资金项目(CX(18)1005)资助。
Effects of Mechanical Ridging and Lateral and Band Fertilization on Yield and Ammonia Volatilization in Chinese Cabbage Production
Jiang ZhenCui, Min Ju, Shi WeiMing
Institute of soil Science,Chinese Academy of Sciences
Abstract:
A consecutive two-year field experiments were carried out to study the effects of mechanical ridging and lateral and band fertilization on the yield and ammonia volatilization in Chinese cabbage production. In 2015, four treatments were designed: Mechanical wide ridging (55 cm) and lateral and band high N fertilization (N480 g/hm2 +MW), mechanical wide ridging and lateral and band low N fertilization (N340 g/hm2 +MW), mechanical narrow ridging (35 cm) and lateral and band low N fertilization (N340 g/hm2 +MN), artificial wide ridging and lateral and band higher N fertilization (N480 g/hm2 +HW). In 2016, four treatments were designed with wide ridging: Artificial ridging without N fertilization (N0+HW), artificial ridging with high N fertilization (N480+HW), artificial ridging with low N fertilization (N340+HW), mechanical ridging and lateral and band low N fertilization (N340+MW). The results showed that the N340+MW treatment had the highest yield of 78.5 t/hm2 , commercial yields of 43.20 t/hm2 and net profit of 30 959 yuan/hm2 , Compared with N480+HW, N340+HW and N0+HW treatments, the N340+MW treatment increased the yield by 8.8%, 15.2% and 58.3% respectively, and increased the commercial yields by 7.4%, 16.4% and 50.1% respectively. Compared with the treatment of N480+HW, the net economic profit of N340+MW and N340+HW were increased by 40.8% and 1.3%, respectively. The ammonia volatilization was 30.0 kg/hm2 in N340+MW treatment, compared with N340+HW and N480+HW treatments, which was significantly decreased by 51.1% and 70.5%, respectively. Therefore, the technology of mechanical ridging and lateral and band fertilization can significantly reduce N fertilizer input and improve cabbage yield, thus can achieve the balance between economic and environmental benefits in Chinese cabbage production.
Key words:  Mechanical ridge  Lateral fertilization  Economic benefit  Ammonia volatilization  Chinese cabbage

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