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氮肥及黄腐酸对盐渍土有机碳和团聚体特征的调控作用
马栗炎,姚荣江,杨劲松
中国科学院南京土壤研究所
摘要:
为了探明不同氮肥水平下黄腐酸对盐碱障碍土壤的改良及培肥效应,本研究以滨海滩涂新垦轻中度盐碱障碍土壤为研究对象开展田间试验,采用水稻-小麦轮作种植模式,通过测定土壤电导率、pH、有机碳和土壤团聚体含量及其稳定性,研究黄腐酸与不同氮肥水平对土壤盐分消减调控和土壤地力提升效应。结果表明:黄腐酸能有效降低耕层土壤盐分,在氮水平300 kg/hm2条件下黄腐酸处理对耕层0 ~ 20 cm土壤电导率与pH降低效果最好;黄腐酸可以有效改善土壤结构及稳定性,小麦季与水稻季,在氮水平300 kg/hm2条件下黄腐酸处理土壤>2 mm水稳性大团聚体含量相较于不施肥对照分别增加18.6% 和13.8%,土壤团聚体平均重量直径与当地常规施肥相比增加38%;围垦初期,氮水平处理相较于黄腐酸处理对耕层土壤有机碳含量的影响更大,氮水平300 kg/hm2处理相较于低氮(225 kg/hm2)与高氮(325 kg/hm2)处理,两季土壤总有机碳积累量分别增加31.0% 和120.0%。综合考虑土壤改良效应,黄腐酸处理土壤表层盐分降低、水稳性大团聚体含量增加且稳定性增强、有机碳含量提升,因此黄腐酸结合适宜用量氮肥是一条轻中度盐碱障碍土壤的优化施肥措施。
关键词:  盐渍土  黄腐酸  水稳性团聚体  有机碳
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.01.005
分类号:S156.4
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0200303)、国家自然科学基金委员会—山东联合基金重点支持项目(U1806215),中国科学院重点部署项目(KFZD-SW-112-03-02)和中国科学院STS项目(KFJ-STS-ZDTP-053,KFJ-STS-ZDTP-049)资助。
Regulation of Nitrogen and Fulvic Acid on Soil Organic Carbon and Aggregates in Saline Soil
maliyan1, yaorongjiang2, yangjinsong2
1.Institution of soil science,Chinese academy of sciences;2.Institution of soil science, Chinese academy of science
Abstract:
In order to disclose the improvement effects of fulvic acid on soil with saline-alkaline disturbance and fertilizer effects under different nitrogenous fertilizer levels, a field experiment was conducted with the newly- reclaimed soil in the coastal tidal flat under rice-wheat cropping rotation. The effects of fulvic acid and different nitrogen levels on soil salinity control and soil fertility improvement were studied by measuring soil electric conductivity, pH value, organic carbon and the content and stability of soil aggregates. The results showed that fulvic acid could effectively reduce salt content in topsoil. When the nitrogen level was 300 kg/hm2, the effect of fulvic acid were best on decreasing soil electric conductivity and pH value of topsoil (0–20 cm). Fulvic acid could effectively improve soil structure, compared with the nofertilizer control, water-stable macro-aggregates (>2mm) under the nitrogen level of 300 kg/hm2 increased by 18.6% in wheat season and 13.8% in rice season, and the mean weight diameter of aggregates increased by 38% compared with the conventional fertilization treatment. In the initial stage of reclamation, the nitrogen level had a greater impact on organic carbon content of topsoil than fulvic acid. Compared with low nitrogen (225 kg/hm2) and high nitrogen (325 kg/hm2), the moderate nitrogen (300 kg/hm2 ) increased total organic carbon accumulation in two seasons increased by 31.0% and 120.0% respectively. By comprehensively considering the effects of soil improvement, decrease of soil salinity, increase of water-stable macro-aggregates content, its stability and organic carbon content, fulvic acid combined with the appropriate amount of nitrogen is recommended as the optimal fertilization for the slight and moderate saline-alkali soil.
Key words:  Saline soil  Fulvic acid  Water-stable aggregates  Organic carbon

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