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有机肥替代部分化肥对滨海盐碱地土壤改良和小麦产量的影响
李 玉,田宪艺,王振林,代兴龙,董元杰,贺明荣
1.山东农业大学资源与环境学院;2.山东农业大学农学院
摘要:
合理利用有机肥资源,将有机肥替代部分化肥是实现减肥目标的重要技术途径之一。特别对于盐碱化土壤,有机肥替代部分化肥既能减少化肥的使用又能改善土壤的理化性质,促进作物产量的提高。本文以滨海盐碱地为研究对象,2014—2016年连续两年在滨州市无棣县渤海粮仓试验基地通过大田试验,研究了不施肥(CK)、普通化肥(CCF)、有机肥替代低量化肥(LOM)、有机肥替代中量化肥(MOM)、有机肥替代高量化肥(HOM)5种施肥模式对盐碱地土壤改良和小麦产量的影响。结果表明:与CK相比,CCF处理对盐碱地土壤盐分的影响不大,而有机肥替代部分化肥处理显著降低了土壤水溶性盐总量和pH,特别是在小麦开花期,MOM和HOM处理明显改善了土壤盐碱化,显著降低了土壤中水溶性钠和交换性钠的比例,使ESP和SAR值减小,其中以HOM处理对滨海盐碱土的土壤盐分改良效果最佳;与CK相比,各施肥处理的土壤养分含量均有提高,有机肥替代处理与CCF相比,对土壤全氮和有效磷的含量影响不明显,而HOM处理的速效钾含量显著高于其他处理,在一定程度上抑制了Na的毒害,有机肥替代处理还显著提高了土壤有机质的含量,改善了土壤环境;从CK到HOM,小麦产量依次递增,与CCF相比,有机肥替代处理 LOM、MOM、HOM分别增产7.5%、18.8%、26.4%。综上,有机肥替代部分化肥,达到了减肥的目的,并对滨海盐碱地有明显的改良效果,提高了小麦产量。且在3个有机肥替代部分化肥的施肥处理中,以HOM施肥处理对滨海盐碱地的改良效果最优,获得的小麦产量最高。
关键词:  有机肥替代化肥  盐碱地  土壤盐分  土壤养分  小麦产量
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2019.06.018
分类号:S287;S512.1
基金项目:山东省农业重大应用技术创新项目(SD2019ZZ021)、国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0201705)和山东省重大科技创新工程项目(2017CXGC0301)资助。
Effects of Substitution of Partial Chemical Fertilizers with Organic Fertilizers on Soil Improvement and Wheat Yield in Coastal Saline and Alkaline Land
LI Yu1, TIAN Xiang-yi1, WANG Zhen-lin2, DAI Xing-long2, DONG Yuanjie3,2, HE Ming-rong2
1.College of Resources and Environment Shandong Agricultural University National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer,Shandong Taian;2.College of Agrinomy Shandong Agricultural University,Shandong Taian;3.College of Resources and Environment Shandong Agricultural University National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer,Shandong Taian,
Abstract:
Rational utilization of organic fertilizer resources and substitution of organic fertilizers for some chemical fertilizers is one of the important ways to achieve the goal of reducing the application of chemical fertilizers. The substitution of organic fertilizers for some chemical fertilizers can reduce the use of chemical fertilizers and improve soil physiochemical properties and promote crop growth especially for saline soil. This paper took the coastal saline-alkaline land as the research object, a two-year field experiment was conducted from 2014 to 2016 at the Bohai Experimental Base in Wudi County, Binzhou to study the effects of five fertilization patterns: non-fertilizer (CK), common chemical fertilizer (CCF), and organic fertilizer substituting low-level chemical fertilizer treatment (LOM), organic fertilizer substituting medium-level chemical fertilizer treatment (MOM), and organic fertilizer substituting high-level chemical fertilizer treatment (HOM) on saline soil improvement and wheat yield. The results showed that compared with CK, the effect of CCF treatment was not significant on soil salinity, while the replacement of some chemical fertilizers with organic fertilizers significantly reduced the total amount of water-soluble salts, and pH, especially in the flowering stage of wheat, soil salinization under MOM and HOM treatments were significantly improved, the proportion of soil water-soluble Na and exchangeable Na were significantly reduced, and ESP and SAR values were decreased. HOM treatment had the best improvement in salinity in coastal salt-alkali soil. Compared with CK, all fertilization treatments improved soil nutrients. Compared with CCF treatment, organic fertilizer substitution treatments had no significant effect on soil total nitrogen and available phosphorus contents. However, the content of available potassium in HOM treatment was significantly higher than those in other treatments, and Na toxicity was inhibited to a certain extent. Organic fertilizer replacement treatment also significantly increased the content of soil organic matter and improved the soil environment. Compared with the CCF treatment, the organic fertilizer substitution treatments, LOM, MOM, and HOM increased wheat yield by 7.5%, 18.8% and 26.4%, respectively. In summary, organic fertilizers replacing part of chemical fertilizers can achieves the goal of reducing the use of chemical fertilizers, has obvious improvement effect on coastal saline-alkaline soil, and can promote wheat yield. In the three kinds of organic fertilizers treatments, HOM treatment has the best effect on the improvement of saline-alkali soil and the highest yield of wheat.
Key words:  Organic fertilizer substitute chemical fertilizer  Soil nutrient  Saline-alkali soil  Soil enzyme activity  Wheat yield

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