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福建省安溪县铁观音茶园土壤氮素状况
吴志丹, 江福英, 张磊, 尤志明
福建省农业科学院茶叶研究所/农业部福建茶树及乌龙茶加工科学观测实验站
摘要:
为了解福建省安溪县铁观音茶园土壤氮素供应能力,对安溪县77个铁观音茶园土壤(分0 ~ 20、20 ~ 40 cm两个土层)全氮、碱解氮含量及对应的铁观音茶叶氮含量进行了测试分析。结果表明:安溪县铁观音茶园0 ~ 20 cm土层土壤全氮含量属中上水平,平均值1.13 g/kg,Ⅱ级(尚可)及以上样点比例达90.9%;20 ~ 40 cm土层土壤全氮含量属中下水平,平均值0.81 g/kg,Ⅱ级(尚可)及以下样点比例占77.9%。黄壤、红壤、水稻土改植、赤红壤茶园土壤全氮含量较高,粗骨土、潮砂土茶园土壤全氮含量较低;土壤全氮与有机质含量呈显著的正相关关系。安溪县铁观音茶园土壤碱解氮总体含量较为丰富,0 ~ 20 cm土层土壤碱解氮含量平均值105.42 mg/kg,Ⅱ级(尚可)及以上样点比例达到97.4%; 20 ~ 40 cm土层平均值75.02 mg/kg,Ⅱ级(尚可)以上样点比例占84.4%。黄壤、红壤、赤红壤、水稻土改植茶园土壤碱解氮含量较高,粗骨土、潮砂土茶园土壤碱解氮含量较低;土壤碱解氮与全氮、有机质含量呈显著的正相关关系。供试铁观音茶叶氮含量与土壤全氮、碱解氮含量相关关系不显著,土壤碱解氮含量能否作为铁观音茶园土壤供氮能力的指标,以及在铁观音茶树的营养诊断时采摘鲜叶的氮素含量是否能作为茶树氮素缺素的诊断指标有待进一步研究。安溪县铁观音茶园土壤氮素管理时应注重氮肥深施,同时增施有机肥、降低速效氮肥的施用比例。
关键词:  氮素  土壤  铁观音茶  安溪县
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.01.003
分类号:S158.3
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0200900),福建省重大科技专项(2017NZ0002)和福建省公益类科研院所专项(2016R1011-4,2018R1012-1)资助。
Study on Soil Nitrogen Status of Tieguanyin Tea Gardens in Anxi County of Fujian Province
Wu Zhi-dan, Jiang Fu-ying, Zhang Lei, You Zhi-ming
Tea Research Institute,Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Abstract:
The contents of nitrogen (N) in soils and N concentrations in tea leaves and their relationship within 77 Tieguanyin tea (Camellia sinensis(L.) O. Kuntze cv. Tieguanyin) gardens in Anxi County of Fujian Province were investigated in this study. The results showed that soil total N contents in 0–20 cm layers were above the average grade with an average content of 1.13 g/kg, the proportion of soil samples with grade II (ordinary) and the higher grades reached 90.9%; while soil total N contents in 20-40 cm soil layers were below the average grade with an average content of 0.81 g/kg, the proportion of soil samples with grade II (ordinary) and the lower grade reached 77.9%. Soil alkaline nitrogen contents in 0-20 cm layers were abundant with an average of 105.42 mg/kg, the proportion of soil samples with grade II (ordinary) and the higher grades was 97.4%. The average of soil alkaline nitrogen contents in 20–40 cm layers was 75.02 mg/kg, the proportion of soil samples with grade II (ordinary) and the higher grades was 84.4%. Total N and alkaline nitrogen contents were higher in yellow soils, red soils, paddy soils and latosolic red soils while lower in the skeletal soils and fluvo-aquic soils. There was a significant positive correlation between the contents of soil total N and organic matter, between the contents of soil alkaline nitrogen and total nitrogen as well as organic matter. There was no significant correlation between N concentrations in tea leaves and soil total N and alkaline N contents. Further study is needed to determine whether the concentration of alkaline nitrogen in tea leaves could be used as a diagnostic index of soil N supplying capacity in Tieguanyin tea gardens and whether N concentration in Tieguanyin tea fresh leaves could be used as a nutrition diagnostic index during the picking stage. Attentions should be paid to deep placing N fertilizers, increasing organic manure and reducing available nitrogen fertilizer.
Key words:  Nitrogen  Soil  Tieguanyin tea  Anxi County

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