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高钾用量和根区施肥可提升皖南不同质地土壤烟叶钾含量
郇威威,王一柳,卢殿君,祖朝龙,王火焰,孙 磊
1.东北农业大学资源与环境学院;2.中国科学院南京土壤研究所,土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点试验室;3.安徽省农业科学院烟草研究所
摘要:
钾是烟叶的品质元素之一,提升烟叶钾含量一直是我国烟草行业关注的重点之一。本文选取安徽烤烟主产区皖南宣城市砂土与黏土两类典型土壤,以云烟97为试验材料,研究田间条件下不同高钾用量水平与施肥方式对烟叶钾含量的影响。研究结果表明,在耕层土壤全层混施方式下,随着施钾量增加(0、300、600、900、1 200、1 800、2 400 mg/kg,以纯K计),两种质地土壤烟叶钾含量均显著上升,呈先快速增加而后缓慢增加的趋势。在钾肥用量低于1 200 mg/kg时,每增加钾肥用量100 mg/kg,砂土和黏土烟叶不同部位钾含量分别平均增加2.4 g/kg和1.0 g/kg。更高钾肥用量可使砂土烟叶钾平均含量提升到44.0 g/kg,黏土则只能提升到26.2 g/kg。两类土壤钾肥效果差异极大的原因与土壤固钾能力有关,土壤速效钾含量与烟叶钾含量呈线性相关,而黏土钾肥固定率平均为71%,远高于砂土的25%,这是两种质地土壤钾肥肥效差异的根本原因。在常规同等钾肥用量条件下(K2O 25 kg/667m2),氮磷钾根区集中施用较常规条施显著促进了烟叶对钾的吸收,提升了烟叶钾含量,而且砂土的效果要好于黏土,其原因也与根区施肥可显著提升烟叶根区土壤速效钾含量有关。以上结果表明,选择固钾能力弱的土壤,提高钾肥用量并改进施肥方法可以有效提升皖南烟叶钾的含量。
关键词:  高钾用量  根区施肥  钾含量  烟叶  土壤质地  皖南
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2019.03.006
分类号:S146
基金项目:安徽省烟草公司科技重点项目 (20150551009) 资助。
Effects of High Potassium Rates and Root Zone Fertilization on Tobacco Potassium Contents in Different Soils of Southern Anhui Province
huanweiwei1, wangyiliu2, ludianjun2, zuchaolong3, wanghuoyan2, sunlei4
1.Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences;2.State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences;3.Tobacco Research Institute, Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences;4.College of Resources and Environment, Northeast Agricultural University
Abstract:
Potassium (K) is one of the quality elements of tobacco leaves. How to effectively increase K content in tobacco leaves has always been one of the focuses of tobacco study in China. In this study, the tobacco cultivar of Yunyan 97 and a sandy soil at Xiangyang and a clayey soil at Hanting of Xuancheng, southern Anhui Province were taken as experimental materials to investigate the effects of high K fertilizer rates and fertilization methods on K contents in tobacco leaves and the relationship between K contents in tobacco leaves and soil properties. Results showed that when K fertilizer was mixed evenly with plough layer soil, K contents in the tobacco leaves significantly increased as K fertilizer rate (0, 300, 600, 900, 1 200, 1 800, 2 400 mg/kg) increased at two sites, and K contents increased at a higher speed at first and then slowed down in quadratic polynomial curve. When K rate was below 1 200 mg/kg, K contents in tobacco leaves increased by 2.4 g/kg and 1.0 g/kg in sandy and clayey soils, respectively, with the increasement of K fertilizer per 100 mg/kg. A higher K application rate can increase the average K content in tobacco leaves to 44.0 g/kg in sandy soil, while only increase to 26.2 g/kg in clayey soil. The significant difference in the effect of K fertilizer on tobacco between the two texture soils was due to the different abilities of soil K fixation. The content of soil available K was linearly related to K content in tobacco leaves. The soil K-fixing rate was 71% at clayey soil, which was notably higher than that at sandy soil (25%). And this is the fundamental cause of the difference in K fertilizer performance between the two soils. With a K fertilizer rate equal to the conventional one (K2O 25 kg/667 m2), concentrated application of N, P and K in the root zone significantly promoted the absorption of K by tobacco leaves, increased K content in tobacco leaves, and the performance of K fertilizer was better in sandy soil than that in clayey soil. The reason may be that root zone fertilization can significantly increase the content of available potassium in the root zone of tobacco leaves. The results above indicate that increasing K application rate and improving fertilization method can effectively increase K content in tobacco leaves in soils with weak K-fixing abilities.
Key words:  High potassium rates  Root zone fertilizer  Potassium content  Tobacco leaf  Soil texture  Southern Anhui

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