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基于废弃物的潞安煤矿废弃地改良土壤基质配比研究
王乐1, 郭小平2, 韩祖光2, 邓川2, 王川2, 曾旸2, 李峰3, 程冀南3
1.北京林业大学水土保持学院;2.北京林业大学;3.山西潞安园林绿化公司
摘要:
为解决潞安矿区煤矸石山、塌陷地生态修复缺土少肥问题,本研究将粉煤灰、污泥与垃圾堆肥以 5%、10%、20% 体积比例正交混合配制改良土壤基质进行盆栽试验,观测不同配比土壤的理化性质、养分及重金属含量、高羊茅与紫叶小檗生长状况,并用主成分-聚类分析法筛选最优配比。结果表明:添加垃圾堆肥可以提高土壤有效养分与有机质含量,对土壤理化性质改良有明显效果;添加污泥仅提升土壤有效磷含量;添加粉煤灰在降低土壤容重、增大总孔隙度与非毛管孔隙度上效果明显,但对土壤pH、阳离子交换量(CEC)与碱解氮的改良具有显著负效应。各废弃物改良基质的碱解氮、有效磷、速效钾、有机质等含量均较高,土壤重金属含量也处在安全范围,而土壤容重、非毛管孔隙、pH、电导率(EC)与CEC等指标性质较优的处理组为粉煤灰∶污泥∶垃圾堆肥∶土=5%∶20%∶20%∶55%、10%∶10%∶20%∶60%、20%∶5%∶20%∶55% 3个处理。经过综合筛选,本研究基质最优混合配比为粉煤灰∶污泥∶垃圾堆肥∶土=5%∶20%∶20%∶55%,可作为当地矿区废弃地生态修复客土材料推荐方案。
关键词:  固体废弃物  改良土壤  理化性质  植物生长  最佳配比
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.01.021
分类号:X752;S731.6
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFC0504406)、北京市科委项目(D08040903690000)资助。
Study on Formula of Soil Substrates for Improving Abandoned Lands in Lu'an Coal Mine
WANG Le,GUO Xiaoping,HAN Zuguang,DENG Chuan,WANG Chuan,ZENG Yang,LI Feng,CHENG Jinan
1.School of soil and water conservation, Beijing Forestry University;2.Shanxi Lu''an landscaping company
Abstract:
In order to solve the problem of soil-lack and water-shortage in ecological restoration of coal gangue hill and subsidence land in Lu'an mining area, in this study, the modified soil substrates were prepared by orthogonal mixing of 5%, 10% and 20% (volume %) of fly ash, sludge and waste compost, their effects on soil physiochemical properties and nutrient conditions, heavy metal accumulation, and the growth of Festuca elata and Berberis thunbergii were studied, and then the optimal formula of soil substrate was determined by principal component - cluster analyses. The results showed that the addition of waste compost not only improved available nutrient and organic matter contents, but also promoted soil physiochemical properties. Adding sludge only increased available P content. Adding fly ash reduced bulk density, increased total porosity and non-capillary porosity significantly, but deteriorated pH, CEC and available nitrogen. The available N, P, K and organic matter contents of all soil substrates were higher, while bulk density, non-capillary pore, pH, EC and CEC and other indicators of substrates of fly ash∶sludge∶waste compost=5%∶20%∶20%∶55%、10%∶10%∶20%∶60%、20%∶5%∶20%∶55% were better. The contents of heavy metals in all soil substrates were lower than those of the "Greening Planting Soil Standard" (CJ/T340—2016). By comprehensive consideration, substrate L3 has the best effects on soil physiochemical properties, fertility and plant growth, thus, the optimal formula of soil substrate is fly ash∶sludge∶waste compost∶soil = 5%∶20%∶20%∶55%.
Key words:  Solid waste  Soil improvement  Physiochemical properties  Plant growth  Optimal formula

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