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棉粕对盐碱环境下土壤微生物多样性及其土壤结构的影响
孟春梅1, 王开勇#2, 张开祥3, 马宏秀3
1.石河子大学农学院;2.新疆石河子大学;3.新疆石河子大学农学院
摘要:
以棉粕作为盐碱土改良剂,针对不同程度的盐碱土壤为研究材料,探究棉粕对盐碱环境下微生物多样性及其土壤结构的影响。提取土样中微生物总DNA,利用新一代illumina HiSeq高通量测序技术进行相关分析,对于土壤微形态则利用扫描电镜进行观察。结果表明,随着盐碱浓度的提高,氯化钠处理下小团聚体所占比例逐步上升且土壤形态表现为表面疏松多孔;碳酸钠则相反,其大团聚体随碱浓度提高而增加,小团聚体所占比例则下降,土壤形态则呈现表面紧实,孔隙少,盐碱土的这两种土壤结构都不利于微生物的生存活动。通过对土壤样品中微生物多样性分析得出,添加棉粕的所有处理相比CK(常规施肥)可以增加盐碱土中微生物群落数量,其中中度盐(MN)、中度碱(MA)处理Shannon指数最大,Simpson 指数最小,说明添加棉粕后MN、MA处理的微生物丰富度最高,盐碱处理下土壤中主要的微生物群落包括 10个门,其中变形菌门占主导地位,其余依次是放线菌门、酸杆菌门、芽单胞菌门、绿弯菌门、拟杆菌门、硝化螺菌门、浮霉菌门、疣微菌门、厚壁菌门。总体而言,通过向盐碱土中添加棉粕可以相应地改善土壤结构,一定程度上增加其微生物群落数量,在中度盐碱情况下添加棉粕使其土壤中微生物丰度最高,而盐碱这种特定的土壤环境中微生物占优势菌门没有太大差异。
关键词:  盐碱土  微生物多样性  土壤结构
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.01.030
分类号:S-3
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31560169,31860591)、国家重点研发项目(2016YFC0501406)、国家国际科技合作专项(2015DFA11660)和石河子大学项目(GJHZ201802,ZZZC201619)资助。
Effects of Cottonseed on Soil Microbial Diversity and Soil Structure Under Saline-alkali Environment
MENG Chunmei,WANG Kaiyong,FAN Hua,ZHANG Kaixiang,MA Hong-xiu
Agronomy ofShi He ZhiUniversity,Xinjiang Shihezhi
Abstract:
Cottonseed meal was taken as the improver of saline-alkali soil with different salinity degrees to study the effects of cottonseed on soil microbial diversity and soil structure. Total DNA of soil samples were extracted and analyzed by a new generation of illumina HiSeq high-throughput sequencing technology, and soil micromorphology was observed by SEM. The results showed that with the increase of salinity and alkalinity, NaCl increased the proportion of micro aggregates gradually and made soil surface looser and more porous, but NaCO3 had the contrary effects, both such soil structures are not conducive to microbial activity. Cottonseed addition could increase the number of microbial communities in saline-alkali soil compared with conventional fertilization, the highest Shannon's index and the lowest Simpson's index for saline-alkali soil were obtained under medium saline-alkali concentration, which indicated that microbial richness was the highest with cottonseed addition. The microbial community under Saline treatment includes 10 phylums, of which the dominant is Proteobacteria, followed by Actinomyces, Acid Bacillus, Bacillus monilia, Green Bending bacteria, Bacteroidetes, Nitrosospiro, Wartericobacter, Firmicutes. In general, cottonseed addition to saline-alkali soil can improve the soil structure and increase the number of microbial communities to a certain extent. Adding cottonseed under moderate saline-alkali condition results in the highest microbial abundance in the soil, but there is no obvious difference in the predominant microbial phylum in saline-alkali soil.
Key words:  Saline-alkali soil  Microbial diversity  Soil structure

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