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有机无机氮肥配施对莴苣土壤N2O排放的影响
汤桂容1,2, 周旋3, 田昌4, 彭辉辉5, 张玉平4, 荣湘民4
1湖南农业大学资源环境学院, 湖南长沙 410128;2长沙环境保护职业技术学院, 湖南长沙 410004;3.湖南省农业科学院土壤肥料研究所;4.湖南农业大学资源环境学院;5.长沙环境保护职业技术学院
摘要:
采用静态箱-气相色谱法研究不同种类有机无机氮肥配合施用对盆栽莴苣土壤N2O排放规律及排放量的影响。试验设置不施肥(CK)、不施氮肥(PK)、施纯化肥(NPK)、有机无机肥配施1(20% 猪粪氮 + 80% 化肥氮,NPKM1)、有机无机肥配施2(20% 沼渣沼液氮 + 80% 化肥氮,NPKM2)和有机无机肥配施3(20% 猪粪堆肥氮 + 80% 化肥氮,NPKM3)共6个处理。结果表明:莴苣生育期各处理施肥后土壤N2O排放出现多个峰值,出峰时间和大小不一;累积排放量随着生育期的进程逐渐增加,处理间差异更为明显。莴苣生育期各处理土壤N2O平均排放通量及累积排放量范围分别为0.10 ~ 0.25 mg/(m2.h) 和1.37 ~ 3.42 kg/hm2,大小均表现为NPK>NPKM2>PK>NPKM1>NPKM3>CK。土壤N2O排放系数范围为0.13% ~ 0.68%,大小表现为NPK>NPKM2>NPKM1>NPKM3。与NPK处理相比,NPKM1、NPKM2和NPKM3处理莴苣土壤N2O累积排放量均分别降低48.08%、25.75% 和48.30%,产量分别增加48.66%、22.13% 和53.76%。总之,施用纯化肥会促进菜地土壤N2O的排放,而不同种类有机无机氮肥配施能有效减少N2O排放且提高作物产量,以猪粪类配施效果最佳。因此,有机无机配施是菜地N2O减排、降低蔬菜种植中氮素损失的重要途径。
关键词:  有机无机氮肥配施  莴苣  氧化亚氮  排放特征
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2019.04.003
分类号:S153.6; S344.1
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD0800500)和湖南省重点研发计划项目(2016NK2112)资助。
Effects of Combined Application of Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen Fertilizers on Soil Nitrous Oxide Emission from Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Fields
Tang Guirong1,2, Zhou Xuan3, Tian Chang4, Peng Huihui5, Zhang Yuping4, Rong Xiangmin4
1 College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China;2 Changsha vocational technical institute of environmental protection, Changsha 410128, China;3.Soil and Fertilizer Institute, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences;4.College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University;5.Changsha vocational technical institute of environmental protection
Abstract:
A pot experiment was conducted with static box-gas chromatographic method to investigate the effects of different combined application of organic and inorganic nitrogen (N) fertilizers on soil N2O emissions from lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) field. There were six treatments, including 1) no fertilizer (CK), 2) no N fertilizer (PK), 3) pure fertilizer (NPK), 4) organic and inorganic fertilizer 1 (20% pig manure N + 80% chemical fertilizer N, NPKM1), 5) organic and inorganic fertilizer 2 (20% biogas manure N + 80% chemical fertilizer N, NPKM2), and 6) organic and inorganic fertilizer 3 (20% pig manure composting N + 80% chemical fertilizer N, NPKM3). Results showed that N2O emission peaks appeared after fertilizer application during lettuce growing season, and the peak time and intensities were differred among different treatments. N2O accumulation emission gradually increased along with the growth period. Soil average N2O emission flux and N2O accumulation emission were 0.10–0.25 mg/(m2?h) and 1.37–3.42 kg/hm2, and in the order of NPK > NPKM2 > PK> NPKM1 > NPKM3 > CK. Soil N2O emission factor was 0.13%–0.68%, and in the order of NPK > NPKM2 > NPKM1 > NPKM3. Compared with NPK treatment, NPKM1, NPKM2 and NPKM3 treatments reduced soil N2O accumulation emission by 48.08%, 25.75% and 48.30%, and increased lettuce yield by 48.66%, 22.13% and 53.76%, respectively. In conclusion, soil N2O emission from lettuce field was promoted by pure fertilizer application, while decreased by the addition of different organic N fertilizers with higher production, especatilly in pig manure (composting or not) treatments. Therefore, combined application of organic and inorganic N fertilizers is an effective way to reduce N2O and N loss by emission in vegetable field.
Key words:  Organic and inorganic nitrogen fertilizers comkined application  Lettuce  Nitrous oxide  Emission characteristics

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