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黄河口湿地不同植物群落土壤盐分与养分分布特征
张天举1, 陈永金1, 刘加珍2
1.聊城大学 环境与规划学院;2.聊城大学环境与规划学院
摘要:
为研究黄河口湿地不同植物群落下土壤盐分与养分含量的空间变化特征以及盐分与养分指标之间的关系,运用经典统计分析、Pearson相关分析、单因素方差分析等方法,开展了植物样地调查和土壤剖面采样分析。结果表明:①研究区土壤全盐(TS)、K+、Na+、Ca2+、Mg2+、Cl-、SO42- 等盐分指标含量及有效磷(AP)、速效氮(AN)、全氮(TN)等养分含量在土壤表层(0 ~ 5 cm)最高,随着土壤深度的增加呈递减之势。②土壤属于重盐土类型(含盐量大于4.0 g/kg),Cl-、Na+ 含量远高于其他离子,是导致土壤盐渍化的主要成分。3种植物群落土壤表层(0 ~ 5 cm)TS含量分异特征表现为柽柳群落>碱蓬群落>芦苇群落。钠吸附比分析表明,3种植物可能会在10 ~ 20 cm土层较早受到Na+ 的毒害。差异显著性检验结果表明,K+、Na+、HCO3- 含量在不同植物群落间差异性显著(P<0.05);除全磷(TP)外,其余土壤养分含量在相同土层不同植物群落之间或在不同土层相同植物群落之间均有显著性差异(P<0.05)。③Pearson相关分析表明,3种植物群落的土壤盐分与养分指标之间相关性不显著,但TS与Na+(P<0.05)、Cl- 含量(P<0.01) 均呈显著性相关。3种植物群落土壤养分均处于亏缺状态,土壤相对贫瘠。土壤N∶P均<14,植物受制于氮元素。控制或减少氯盐及钠盐的投入、增施有机肥和覆盖有机质含量高的物质是一条减轻黄河口湿地土壤盐渍化的合适途径。
关键词:  黄河口湿地  植物群落  盐分  养分
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.01.026
分类号:S156.4+2
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划项目(2014BAC15B02)和国家自然科学基金项目(40901276;40871239)资助。
Spatial Distribution of Soil Salinity and Nutrients Ander Different Vegetation Communities in Yellow River Estuary Wetland
ZHANG Tianjv1, CHEN Yongjin1, liujiazhen2
1.School of Environment and Planning,Liaocheng University,Liaocheng;2.School of Environment and Planning, Liaocheng University
Abstract:
By using the classical statistical and correlation analysis and one way analysis of variance, an investigation of vegetation quadrats and soil samples was carried out to assess the spatial variation of soil salinity and nutrient contents and their relationship under different vegetation communities (Tamarix chinensis, Suaeda salsa, Phragmites australis) of the Yellow River Estuary. The results showed that: 1) The contents of salinity (TS, K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO42-) and nutrients (available phosphorus, AP; available nitrogen, AN; total nitrogen, TN) in surface layers of soil profiles were obvious higher than those in other layers, and they declined with the increase of soil depth. 2) The studied soil belonged to heavy solonchak with the mean soil salinity more than 4.0 g/kg. Cl- and Na+ were the two most important ions contributing to soil salinization. There were great differences among different vegetation communities in total salinity in the surface layers (0–5 cm) with an order of Tamarix chinensis> Suaeda salsa > Phragmites australis. Sodium adsorption ratio indicated that the three vegetation could be poisoned by Na+ in the layer of 10~20 cm. K+, Na+ and HCO3- were significantly different among different vegetation communities. Except for TP, the other soil nutrients were significantly different between different vegetation communities in the same soil layer or among the same vegetation communities in different soil layers. 3) correlation between salinity and nutrients were not significant in the three vegetation communities, however, total salt had significant correlation with Na+ (P<0.05) and Cl- (P<0.01). Soil nutrients were insufficient and the soil was infertile. The soil N:P under the three vegetation communities was less than 14, consequently, nitrogen was the limited nutrient factor to the growth of vegetation in study area. Therefore, controlling or reducing chloride and sodium, increasing organic manure and covering with organic matter are the optional ways to alleviate soil salinization in the Yellow River Estuary Wetland.
Key words:  The Yellow River Estuary Wetland  Vegetation community  Salinity  Nutrients

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