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普洱茶种植对滇南红壤大孔隙的影响
杨 坤,赵洋毅,王克勤,段 旭,韩姣姣,李耀龙
西南林业大学生态与水土保持学院
摘要:
为探讨滇南典型红壤下普洱茶种植对土壤大孔隙的影响,以灌草地和茶地为研究对象,采用染色示踪法观察土壤剖面,运用PhotoshopCS5、Image pro plus软件进行图像处理,利用土壤水分穿透曲线和Poiseulle方程研究了该地区的大孔隙特征。结果表明:茶地在耕作层大面积染色中,染色深度可达土层40 cm深度,灌草地于土层2.8 cm深度开始出现大孔隙流,灌草地比茶地更易发生大孔隙流;样地大孔隙主要集中在当量孔径0.4 ~ 2.5 mm,其中茶地和灌草地当量孔径0.4 ~ 1.0 mm大孔隙密度分别占95.2% 和95.5%,当量孔径>1 mm的大孔隙密度较低,且灌草地大于茶地;大孔隙密度分布为10 ~ 20 cm土层最高,随着土层深度增加依次递减,整体上土壤大孔隙密度关系为灌草地>茶地;土壤大孔隙不同当量孔径密度和染色面积比与土壤饱和导水率呈现显著性相关关系,当量孔径>1 mm的大孔隙仅占4.61%,但控制了饱和导水率90.8% 的变异。茶地相较于灌草地土壤结构遭到破坏,水分向下运移速率慢,渗透量减小,致使水土流失加重。
关键词:  土壤大孔隙  染色示踪法  茶种植  饱和导水率  滇南
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2019.03.023
分类号:S157.1
基金项目:云南省重点研发计划项目(2018BB018)、国家自然科学基金项目(31860235,31760149,31560233)、国家级大学生创新训练计划项目(201810677016)、国家林业与草原局林业科技创新平台运行补助项目(2018-LYPT-DW-162)和云南省自然生态监测网络监测项目(2018-YN-12)资助。
Effects of Planting Pu'er Tea on Macropores in Typical Red Soil in South of Yunnan
yangkun1, zhaoyangyi2
1.无;2.Southwest Forestry University College of Ecology and Soil & Water Conservation
Abstract:
In order to study the effect of planting Pu’er tea on macropores in the typical red soil in South of Yunnan, an experiment was conducted in shrub-grassland and tea land, staining tracer was used to observe soil profiles, Photoshop CS5 and Image Pro Plus were used to edit images of dyed soil profiles, then penetration curves of soil moisture and Poiseulle equation were used to study the characteristics of soil macropores. The results showed that the tea land was dyed in large area in plough layer, the dyeing depth was up to 40 cm. Macropore flow appeared since 2.8 cm depth in shrub-grassland. Macropore flow happened more easily and frequently in shrub-grassland than in tea land. Macropores were mainly concentrated in Width of 0.4 – 2.5 mm, and 0.4 – 1.0 mm macropores of tea and shrub-grass lands accounted for 95.2% and 95.5%, respectively. >1 mm macropores were less, and more easily found in shrub-grassland. Macropores mainly appeared in depth of 10 – 20 cm, and decreased with the increase of soil depth. Macropore density was higher in shrub-grassland than in tea land. Soil hydraulic conductivity significantly correlated with equivalent diameter densities of soil macropores and dyeing area. >1 mm micropores only accounted for 4.61% in area but controlled 90.8% variation of hydraulic conductivity. Compared with shrub-grassland, soil structure was damaged in tea land, where water moved down slowly and infiltration capacity was decreased, thus, aggravated soil erosion.
Key words:  Soil macropore  Staining tracer method  Tea planting  Saturated hydraulic conductivity  South of Yunnan

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