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叶尔羌河平原绿洲土地利用变化及土地生态安全评价研究
麦丽开BbBb艾麦提
新疆师范大学 地理科学与旅游学院 乌鲁木齐 830054
摘要:
以叶尔羌河平原绿洲为研究区,选择1991年、2005年、2016年Landsat遥感影像数据,利用RS和GIS技术对研究区的土地利用进行了定量的提取和分析,同时,通过近26 a社会经济数据,采用压力–状态–响应(PSR)模型构建了叶研究区土地生态安全评价指标体系,并利用熵值法确定了各指标权重,运用综合指数评价法从时间尺度上对1991—2016年26 a间研究区土地生态安全水平进行了综合评价。结果表明:①1991—2016年除耕地、建设用地面积增加外,研究区其他地类面积均减小,林地面积减少最大为47.12%。②近26 a研究区土地生态安全综合指数大致呈现递增趋势,其中,1991—2007年均处于风险级,2008—2016年土地生态环境有所改善,但安全等级处于敏感级,土地生态环境仍较差。③改善研究区土地生态安全状况,需要加大资金投入力度,促进生态建设,加强土地利用监督管理,控制人口增长,缓解人地矛盾,为实现土地生态安全的可持续发展奠定良好的基础。
关键词:  土地利用变化  生态安全评价  PSR模型  叶尔羌河平原绿洲
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2019.04.022
分类号:F301;X826
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41661100)和新疆师范大学研究生科技创新项目(XSY201902008)资助。
Study on Land Use Change and Land Ecological Security Evaluation in Oasis of Yarkant River Plain
mai li kai ai mai ti
School of Geographic Science and Tourism of Xinjiang Normal University,Urumqi,830054
Abstract:
Taking the oasis of the Yarkant River Plain as the study area, Landsat remote sensing images in 1991, 2005 and 2016 were selected, and land use types were quantitatively extracted and analyzed by using RS and GIS techniques, and social and economic data in the same periods were used to extract and analyze to construct the evaluation index system of land ecological security by using PSR model, the weight of each index was determined by entropy method, and then the land ecological security levels from 1991 to 2016 were evaluated synthetically by using the method of comprehensive index evaluation on the time scale. The results showed that during 1991–2016, except for cultivated land and construction land, the areas of other land use types decreased, and woodland decreased most, by 47.12%. The comprehensive index of land ecological security in the oasis of Yarkant River Plain showed an increasing trend, among which, it was at the risk level during 1991–2007, and changed to the sensitive level in 2018–2–16 with the improvement of land ecological environment, but it still indicated a poor land ecological environment. To improve the land ecological security of the oasis in the Yarkant River Plain, it is necessary to increase the fund investment to promote the ecological construction in strengthening land use supervision and management, controlling population growth and alleviating contradiction between people and land in order to lay a solid foundation for the sustainable development of land ecological security.
Key words:  Land use change  Ecological security evaluation  PSR model  Yarkant River Plain Oasis

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