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不同污染区土壤汞的分布特征及变化规律
李家飞1, 刘鸿雁2, 陈竹2, 饶程1, 姜畅1, 刘青栋2, 周显勇2
1.贵州大学资源与环境工程学院;2.贵州大学农学院
摘要:
为揭示不同污染区重金属汞在土壤中的存在形态及分布特征,选取万山汞矿区、大龙燃煤电厂区为研究区域,以无污染区花溪区为对照,选择优化的Tessier连续化学浸提法进行汞的形态分析。结果表明:万山汞矿区与大龙燃煤电厂的土壤总汞平均值分别为22.7 mg/kg和0.648 mg/kg,均超过我国土壤环境质量二级标准(0.5 mg/kg),无污染对照区土壤总汞平均为0.179 mg/kg。在水平方向上,万山汞矿区靠近污染源的土壤汞含量相对较高,随着距离的增加而下降;大龙燃煤电厂区土壤汞在距燃煤电厂2.5 km范围内呈现先减小后增大的趋势。汞矿区土壤汞主要以残渣态(66.6%)为主,其次为有机结合态(30.0%);燃煤电厂则主要以有机结合态(75.7%)为主,其次为残渣态(17.46%);无污染区主要以残渣态(59.1%)为主,其次为有机结合态(28.9%)。内梅罗污染综合指数显示,万山汞矿区的土壤污染指数为107,为重度污染,这与污染源强度大有关,2004—2017年,总汞含量呈下降趋势;大龙燃煤电厂土壤污染指数为1.57,为轻度污染,同时土壤汞以有机结合态为主,潜在生物有效性相对较高,有一定的环境生态风险。
关键词:  汞矿区  燃煤电厂区  土壤    形态分布
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.01.023
分类号:X53
基金项目:国家基金委-贵州省人民政府联合基金项目(U1616442-2)和贵州省教育厅重点实验室项目(黔教合KY字[2016]001)资助。
Speciation and Changes of Soil Hg in Different Pollution Areas
lijiafei1, liuhongyan2, chenzhu2, raocheng1, jiangchang1, liuqingdong2, zhouxianyong2
1.College of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Guizhou University;2.Guizhou University College of Agriculture
Abstract:
In order to reveal the speciation and changes of soil Hg in different polluted areas, Wanshan mercury mine and Dalong coal-fired power plant were selected as the study area with Huaxi district in the unpolluted area as the control, and the optimized Tessier continuous chemical extraction was used to analyze different Hg speciation. The results showed that the average total Hg content was 22.7 mg/kg in Wanshan mercury mine and 0.648 mg/kg in Dalong coal-fired power plant, both exceeding the 2nd standard in soil environmental quality in China (0.5 mg/kg), while total Hg was 0.179 mg/kg in the control area. In the horizontal direction, Soil Hg content was higher near the pollution source in Wanshan mercury mining and decreased with the increase of distance from the source; soil Hg content decreased first then increased within 2.5 km in Dalong coal-fired power plant. Hg in mercury mining was mainly in the residual state (66.6%), followed by the organically bound state (30.0%); Hg in coal-fired power plant was dominated by organic bonding (75.7%), followed by the residue state (17.46%); Hg in the non-polluted area was mainly in the residue state (59.1%), followed by the organically bound state (28.9%). Nerome synthetic pollution indexes was 107 in Wanshan mercury mining, indicating heavy pollution attributed to the intensity of the pollution source From 2004 to 2017, The total Hg content of Wanshan mercury mining was decreased. Nerome synthetic pollution indexes was 1.57 in Dalong coal-fired power plant, indicating mild pollution but with environmental and ecological risk due to the persistence of pollution source and the dominant organic binding state Hg with high potential biological effectiveness.
Key words:  Mercury mining area  Coal-fired power plant area  Soil  Hg  Speciation distribution

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