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陕西武功县猕猴桃园土壤养分调查与评价
王亚国, 雷玉山
陕西省农村科技开发中心
摘要:
测定陕西武功县猕猴桃园土壤养分含量,评价土壤肥力状况,为指导果园科学施肥提供参考依据。本研究采集研究区10个代表性果园表层土壤样品,对其pH、有机质以及速效氮、磷、钾含量进行测定,结合相关分级标准,分析果园土壤肥力状况。结果表明:武功县猕猴桃园土壤pH在7.52 ~ 8.54,平均为8.16,属于弱碱性土壤;土壤有机质含量在10.78 ~ 26.73 g/kg,平均为18.43 g/kg,达到中量水平的土壤样品仅占25.1%,整体表现缺乏;土壤速效氮含量在47.60 ~ 254.16 mg/kg,平均为138.69 mg/kg,64.7% 的土壤样品速效氮含量超过120 mg/kg,仅有8.0% 的土壤样品速效氮含量缺乏;土壤有效磷含量在11.01 ~ 292.10 mg/kg,平均为59.22 mg/kg,达到丰富及以上水平的土壤样品占90.3%;土壤速效钾含量在32.81 ~ 458.20 mg/kg,平均为190.92 mg/kg,丰富、中量、缺乏的土壤样品分别占57.3%、28.2%、14.5%。研究区土壤pH、土壤有机质空间变异相对较小,土壤速效氮、磷、钾含量比较丰富,但空间分布不均衡。建议在今后土壤及施肥管理中,采取综合措施,适度降低土壤pH,以满足猕猴桃生长所需的土壤酸碱环境;加强有机肥的投入,逐年提高土壤有机质含量;控制氮、磷、钾化肥的施用,提高肥料利用率。
关键词:  陕西武功  猕猴桃园  土壤养分
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2019.06.008
分类号:S663.4;S158
基金项目:国家科技计划课题(2014BAD16B05-3)和陕西省科技统筹创新工程计划项目(2015KTZDNY02-03-01)资助。
Investigation and Assessment on Soil Nutrients of Kiwifruit Orchards in Wugong County of Shaanxi Province
wangyaguo, leiyushan
Shaanxi Rural Science and Technology Development Center
Abstract:
In this paper, topsoil samples of 10 representative orchards in Wugong County, Shaanxi Province were collected, and pH, contents of organic matter, available nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium were measured, soil fertility were assessed according to the grade standard of 2nd national soil survey, and finally the reference was provided for scientific fertilization of kiwifruit orchard. The results showed that soil pH was 7.52-8.54 with an average of 8.16, indicating the soils belong to weakly alkaline soil. The content of soil organic matter was 10.78- 26.73 g/kg with an average of 18.43 g/kg, only 25.1% of the soil samples reached the middle level, indicating most samples were short of soil organic matter. The content of soil available nitrogen was 47.60-254.16 mg/kg with an average of 138.69 mg/kg, available nitrogen content of 64.7% of soil samples was more than 120 mg/kg, while only 8.0% of soil samples was insufficient in available nitrogen content. Available phosphorus content was 11.01-292.10 mg/kg with an average of 59.22 mg/kg, 90.3% of soil samples reached the rich and above levels of available phosphorus content. Soil available potassium content was 32.81-458.20 mg/kg with an average of 190.92 mg/kg, soil samples with rich, moderate and low levels of available potassium accounted for 57.3%, 28.2% and 14.5% of the total soil samples, respectively. The spatial variations of soil pH and soil organic matter in the study area were relatively small, and the contents of available nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium were relatively rich, but the spatial distribution was uneven. In the future soil and fertilizer management, it is recommended to adopt comprehensive measures to moderately reduce soil pH to meet the need of kiwifruit growth. In addition, it is advised to strengthen the input of organic fertilizer in order to increase the content of soil organic matter year by year, and control the application of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers to improve the utilization rate of fertilizers.
Key words:  Wugong of Shaanxi  Kiwifruit orchard  Soil nutrients

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