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黑龙江春玉米最佳施氮方式的研究
单德鑫,孙萌芮,刘 霄,徐振轩,刘 璐,高佳楠
东北农业大学资源与环境学院
摘要:
以“乐玉一号”玉米品种为试验材料,探究了不施氮处理(T1)、100% 基施尿素处理(T2)、基追比1∶1施尿素处理(T3)、37.5% 尿素+62.5% 控释尿素配施处理(T4)、70% 尿素+30% 有机无机复混肥配施处理(T5)、37.5% 尿素+30% 有机无机复混肥+32.5% 控释尿素配施处理(T6)对土壤各养分利用、玉米氮磷钾养分吸收、玉米产量及其构成因素以及氮肥利用率的影响,从而找出了黑龙江省春玉米最佳施氮方式。除T1处理外,T6处理土壤中铵态氮、硝态氮含量在成熟期均最低;除拔节期外,3个时期T6处理玉米叶片、茎秆的氮积累量及干物质量均最高;其产量为1 1428 kg/hm2,增产率为24.82%,氮肥农学效率及氮肥偏生产力均最高。因此,黑龙江省春玉米生长所需的最佳施氮方式为37.5% 尿素+30% 有机无机复混肥+32.5% 控释尿素配施。
关键词:  玉米  施氮方式  养分含量  产量
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.03.005
分类号:210.2080
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0300503)资助。
Study on Optimum Nitrogen Fertilization Method of Spring Maize in Heilongjiang
SHAN Dexin1, SUN Mengrui1, LIU Xiao1, XU Zhenxuan1, LIU Lu2, GAO Jianan1
1.College of Resources and Environment, Northeast Agricultural University;2.College of Resources and Environment,Northeast Agricultural University
Abstract:
In this study, the corn variety of Leyu No.1 was used as the experimental material, 6 treatments were designed which include T1, no nitrogen; T2, 100% base urea; T3, 100% urea with 1∶1 ratio of base feitilier to topressing; T4, 37.5 % urea + 62.5% controlled release urea; T5, 70% urea+30% organic-inorganic compound fertilizer; T6, 37.5% urea+30% organic-inorganic compound fertilizer+32.5% controlled release urea, and then the effects of above treatments on soil nutrient utilization, the uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium by maize, maize yield and its components, and nitrogen use efficiency of maize were investigated in order to find the optimal nitrogen application method for spring maize in Heilongjiang. The results showed that for T6 treatment, the contents of soil ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen were the lowest except T1 at the maturity stage, nitrogen accumulation and dry matter weight of corn leaves and stalks were the highest in the other three periods except the jointing stage, corn yield was 1 1428 kg/hm2, increased by 24.82% compared with T1, and the agronomic efficiency and the partial productivity of nitrogen fertilizer both were the highest. In conclusion, T6 was the optimal nitrogen application method for spring maize growth in Heilongjiang.
Key words:  Corn  Nitrogen Fertilization method  Nutrient content  Yield

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