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土壤消毒结合施用生物有机肥对西瓜病土改良效果的影响
孟天竹, 郭德杰, 王光飞, 马 艳
江苏省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所
摘要:
选取西瓜枯萎病发病严重的大棚,设置5个处理:对照、棉隆熏蒸、棉隆熏蒸后种植西瓜过程中施用不同次数生物有机肥,研究棉隆消毒土壤及配合不同生物有机肥施用次数对土壤理化和生物学性质及西瓜枯萎病发病率的影响。结果表明:棉隆熏蒸土壤后,施用生物有机肥虽未减缓尖孢镰刀菌增长速率、降低西瓜枯萎病发病率,但显著增加了土壤细菌和真菌数量,改变了细菌和真菌群落结构。此外,施用生物有机肥会降低土壤pH,过量施用会导致土壤NO3-累积、盐分增加。从改良土壤微生物群落结构和避免NO3-累积及土壤盐渍化加重角度出发,种植西瓜过程中生物有机肥最佳施用方式为移栽时施用1次 + 种植过程中追施1 ~ 2次。
关键词:  西瓜枯萎病  棉隆熏蒸  生物有机肥
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.03.011
分类号:S154.3
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41701304)、江苏省科技支撑计划(现代农业)重点项目(BE2017379)和江苏现代农业(蔬菜)产业技术体系项目(JATS(2019)333)资助。
Effect of Combination of Soil Disinfestation and Bioorganic Fertilizer Application on Improving Watermelon Diseased Soil
MENG Tianzhu, GUO Dejie, WANG Guangfei, MA Yan
Institute of Agricultural Resource and Environment, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Abstract:
To investigate the effects of dazomet fumigation and different application times of bioorganic fertilizer on soil physicochemical and biological properties as well as the incidence of watermelon Fusarium wilt disease, five treatments, i.e. un-treated control (CK), dazomet fumigation, applying different times of bioorganic fertilizer into dazomet fumigated soil during the watermelon cultivation, were conducted in a greenhouse with severely Fusarium wilt. The results showed that the application of bioorganic fertilizer in dazomet fumigated soil did not decrease the population of F. oxysporum and the disease incidence, but significantly increased the bacterial and fungal numbers and altered the microbial community structure. In addition, the application of bioorganic fertilizer decreased soil pH, and excessive application would lead to the accumulations of nitrate and salinity. To improve soil microbial community and prevent soil salinization, the optimal application of bioorganic fertilizer was applying one time when transplantation and 1-2 times during the cultivation.
Key words:  Watermelon fusarium wilt  Dazomet fumigation  Bioorganic fertilizer

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