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秸秆还田配施氮肥对宁夏扬黄灌区滴灌玉米产量及土壤物理性状的影响
吴鹏年, 王艳丽, 侯贤清, 李培富
宁夏大学农学院
摘要:
针对宁夏扬黄灌区土壤质地黏重、土壤水分匮乏等导致作物产量低下等问题,研究秸秆还田配施氮肥对土壤物理性状的改良效应。本试验设计在玉米秸秆全量粉碎还田(12 000 kg/hm2)的同时配施4种纯氮施用水平(0、150、300、450 kg/hm2),以秸秆不还田常规施氮225 kg/hm2 为对照,研究秸秆还田配施不同量氮肥对玉米产量及土壤物理性状的影响。结果表明:与处理前相比,施用纯氮300 kg/hm2 和450 kg/hm2 可分别降低0 ? 20 cm土层土壤容重1.25% 和3.20%,土壤孔隙度2.69% 和1.89%。与秸秆不还田处理相比,秸秆还田配施氮肥300 kg/hm2 和450 kg/hm2 可使0 ~ 20 cm土层2 ~ 5 mm、>5 mm机械稳定性团粒结构显著增加。秸秆还田配施氮肥可显著增加土壤含水量,尤其在作物生长前期,秸秆还田配施氮肥300 kg/hm2 较对照可显著增加土壤含水量13.64%。秸秆还田配施氮肥条件下玉米产量及产量构成因素较秸秆不还田均有增加趋势,秸秆还田配施纯氮300 kg/hm2 可提高玉米产量20.21%,增加玉米百粒重9.37%,以及增加穗粒数37.91%。可见,秸秆还田配施纯氮300 kg/hm2 具有较好的蓄水保墒效果,其增产效果显著,可为该区土壤培肥提供参考。
关键词:  秸秆还田  氮肥  土壤容重  土壤含水量  玉米产量
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.03.007
分类号:S147.35;S512.1+1
基金项目:“十二五”国家科技支撑计划项目(2015BAD22B05-03)资助。
Effects of Straw Returning with Nitrogen Fertilizer on Maize Yield and Soil Physical Properties Under Drip-irrigation in Yanghuang Irrigation Area in Ningxia
WU Pengnian, WANG Yanli, HOU Xianqing, LI Peifu
Agricultural College, Ningxia University
Abstract:
In this paper, the effects of straw returning with nitrogen fertilizer on low maize yield caused by soil texture and moisture were studied in Yanghuang irrigation area in Ningxia. Four levels of pure nitrogen (0, 150, 300, 450 kg/hm2) were designed under the condition of total maize straw returning (12 000 kg/hm2), the conventional nitrogen of 225 kg/hm2 without straw returning was as control (CK). The results showed that pure nitrogen of 300 kg/hm2 and 450 kg/hm2reduced soil bulk density of 0–20 cm soil by 1.25% and 3.20%, and increased soil porosity by 2.69% and 1.89% respectively compared with before treatment. Compared with no straw returning, straw returning with nitrogen fertilizer of 300 kg/hm2 and 450 kg/hm2 significantly increased the mechanical stability of 2–5 mm and >5 mm aggregates in 0–20 cm soil. Straw returning with nitrogen fertilizer significantly increased soil moisture, especially at the early stage of crop growth, straw returning with nitrogen fertilizer of 300 kg/hm2 significantly increased soil moisture by 13.64% compared with CK. Under the condition of straw returning with nitrogen fertilizer, the yield and yield components of corn increased compared with no straw returning. Corn yield of straw returning with pure nitrogen of 300 kg/hm2 increased corn yield by 20.21%, 100–grain weight of maize by 9.37%, and the grain number per ear by 37.91%. Straw returning with pure nitrogen of 300 kg/hm2 has a good effect on water storage and preservation, it can increase maize yield remarkably. This study can provide a reference for soil fertilization in the studied area.
Key words:  Straw returning  Nitrogen fertilizer  Soil bulk density  Soil water content  Corn yield

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