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遗址土壤的系统分类研究
查理思1, 吴克宁2, 鞠 兵3, 高晓晨4
1.广东财经大学公共管理学院;2.中国地质大学(北京)土地科学技术学院;3.中国科学院南京土壤研究所;4.河北省不动产登记服务中心
摘要:
选取4个典型遗址土壤剖面为研究对象,基于剖面形态和理化性质的分析,根据世界土壤资源参比基础(WRB)、美国土壤系统分类(ST)、中国土壤系统分类(CST),对供试土壤进行分类归属研究。结果表明:目前的分类方案均不能较好地体现遗址土壤的特征,因此建议在CST人为土土纲中增加技术人为土亚纲,并先被检索出来,下设缓透技术人为土和遗址技术人为土土类,分别下设遗址缓透技术人为土、含磷遗址技术人为土和普通遗址技术人为土亚类。修改方案不仅可以较少地改动土壤系统分类诊断体系,也能够较好地将古人类影响的土壤特征和产生的技术物质融合到新增的“人为缓透或不透层次”或“人工制品”中,作为从古到今所有人类活动和技术物质的一部分,从而实现遗址土壤在系统分类中的归属。
关键词:  遗址土壤  土壤系统分类  土壤考古
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.03.030
分类号:S155
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41907007,4137226)和国家科技基础性工作专项项目(2008FY110600)资助。
Study on Soil Taxonomy of Relic Soils
ZHA Lisi1, WU Kening2, JU Bing3, GAO Xiaochen4
1.School of Public Administration, Guangdong University of Finance and Economics;2.School of Land Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences;3.Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Acadeng of Sciences;4.Real Estate Registration Service Center of Hebei Province
Abstract:
Soil is becoming an important object in archaeological research, yet Chinese Soil Taxonomy (CST) doesn’t have any explicit diagnostic basis for characterizing relic soils. Therefore, it is essential to intensify the characteristics of relic soils in CST, which could not only promote the diagnostic features of relic soils, but also facilitate the integration of archaeology and soil science. In this paper, 4 typical cultural relic soil profiles in Henan Province were selected as the study objects, based on the morphological and physicochemical analyses, their soil types were classified in WRB, Soil Taxonomy (ST) of USDA and CST, respectively. The results showed that all of them lacked appropriate prefix or suffix to describe diagnosis of relic soils containing ancient artifacts. Then, scheme of relic soils in CST was proposed, adding a new soil suborder of technic anthroposols which contains two new soil groups of impermeable technic anthroposols and relic technic anthroposols. Three new subgroups of relic impermeable technic anthroposols, phosphorous relic technic anthroposols and normal relic technic anthroposols were added respectively. This proposal scheme alters current CST little, and can integrate the characteristics of relic soils into the new adding of “artificial slow penetration or impermeable layer” or “artifact” as a part of human activities and material technology since ancient times, thus can give relic soil a proper place in CST.
Key words:  Relic soil  Soil taxonomy  Soil archaeology

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