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陕西省设施农业土壤退化现状分析
张艳霞1, 陈智坤1, 胡文友2, 孙晓宇3, 黄 标2, 田 康2
1.陕西省科学院土壤资源与生物技术应用重点实验室,陕西省西安植物园(陕西省植物研究所);2.中国科学院土壤环境与污染修复重点实验室(南京土壤研究所);3.陕西省微生物研究所
摘要:
本文以陕西省为例,分别对陕北、关中、陕南148个重点设施蔬菜基地进行了大棚种植历史、轮作现状、水肥管理、病虫害现状等系统调查,并通过土壤样品采集,分析了土壤基本性质、养分含量和重金属含量。结果显示,陕西省3个地区的设施土壤pH均显著低于周边大田土壤,且随着设施种植年限增加土壤pH呈现持续下降趋势;土壤次生盐渍化特征明显(EC > 500 μS/cm);土壤养分积累现象普遍,特别是速效养分积累显著;陕北、关中地区设施土壤部分重金属累积超过大田土壤,表明该地区设施土壤退化现象明显。结合设施农业调查资料发现,设施土壤退化的根本原因是利用强度过高、农用品投入过大,这将对设施生产与生态环境造成影响,因此,在该地区,开展设施土壤轮作休耕或修复工作非常必要。
关键词:  土壤退化  养分失衡  设施农业  土壤修复
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.03.031
分类号:X53
基金项目:陕西省科学院重大研究专项(2016K-07)、陕西省重点研发专项重点项目(2017ZDXM-NY-049)、国家科技基础性工作专项(2015FY110400-(2))和国家青年科学基金项目(41807497)资助。
Soil Degradation in Greenhouse Vegetable Production Systems in Shaanxi
ZHANG Yanxia1, CHEN Zhikun1, HU Wenyou2, SUN Xiaoyu3, HUANG Biao2, TIAN Kang2
1.Key Laboratory of Soil Resource & Biotech Applications, Shaanxi Academy of Sciences, Xi'an Botanical Garden of Shaanxi Province, Institute of Botany of Shaanxi Province;2.Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences;3.Microbiology Institute of Shaanxi Province
Abstract:
The objective of this paper is to investigate the status of plastic greenhouse (PG) soil degradation in Shaanxi Province. 148 PGs in Shaanxi were chosen to conduct the questionnaire surveys on production and management. A total of 330 soil samples in PGs and open fields were collected, and soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM), electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), bioavailable phosphorus (AvP), bioavailable potassium (AvK) and heavy metals were analyzed. Results showed that the mean value of pH in PG soil was lower than the level in open field soil, and PG soil planted over 10 years had the lowest pH. The mean value of EC in PG soil was much higher than the level in open field soil. The rations of N: P: K and AvP: AvK in PG soil were respectively higher than those levels in open field soil, showing nutrient imbalance of PG soil. Heavy metals accumulation was more serious in PG soil than in open field soil in northern Shaanxi and the middle of Shaanxi, especially Cd, Cu, and Zn. In conclusion, PG soil degradation is serious in Shaanxi Province. PG soil degradation is closely related to highly intensive agricultural input and yearly continuous cropping, thus, it is very urgent to adopt crop rotation and fallow systems to improve PG soil quality.
Key words:  Soil degradation  Nutrient imbalance  Facility agriculture  Soil remediation

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