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云南玉溪柑橘园土壤养分状况与分布特征
李有芳1, 张超博1, 易晓曈1, 凌丽俐1, 黄梓洋1, 施云庭2, 胡军华1, 张 蓉2, 李永奇2, 资丽玲2, 彭良志1
1.西南大学柑桔研究所;2.云南省玉溪市柑桔研究所
摘要:
在云南省玉溪市华宁南盘江低热河谷区、华宁山地丘陵区、元江干热河谷区和新平山地丘陵区4个柑橘生态区,选取一个月内未施肥的101个代表性柑橘园采集土壤进行分析。结果表明:玉溪柑橘园土壤pH变幅在3.98 ~ 8.07,52.48% 的土壤pH基本适宜柑橘生长,14.85% 的土壤pH适宜柑橘生长;土壤有机质匮乏,59.40% 的土壤低于15 g/kg。土壤碱解氮、有效磷、钾、钙、镁、铁、锰、锌、铜、硼的平均含量分别为78.64、53.95、273.15、3 240.37、233.39、23.21、43.82、5.67、2.89、0.50 mg/kg。总体上,土壤碱解氮和有效硼含量不足(低量和缺乏),比例分别为78.22% 和66.34%;有效钾、钙、锰和铜含量以超标(高量和过量)居多,比例分别为64.36%、51.48%、56.44% 和83.17%;有效磷、铁、锌含量以丰富(适宜、高量和过量)为主,比例分别为67.31%、75.24% 和88.12%;有效镁不足、适宜和超标的果园各占约1/3。在土壤养分状况的区域特征方面,华宁优于新平,新平优于元江。土壤pH与有效钙、镁含量的正相关性极显著,与有效锰、铜含量的负相关性极显著,土壤有机质与大部分养分含量正相关且达到显著水平。因此,云南玉溪柑橘园生产上应注意调节土壤pH,增施有机肥和氮、硼肥,适度少施钾、磷肥,注意钙、锰和铜肥的控制。
关键词:  玉溪市  柑橘园  土壤  营养元素
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.03.010
分类号:S158
基金项目:国家重点研发计划课题(2017YFD0202006)和国家现代农业(柑桔)产业技术体系建设专项(CARS-26-01A)资助。
Characteristics of Soil Nutrients and Frequency Distribution of Yuxi Citrus Orchards in Yunnan
LI Youfang1, ZHANG Chaobo1, YI Xiaotong1, LING Lili1, HUANG Zhiyang1, SHI Yunting2, HU Junhua1, ZHANG Rong2, LI Yongqi2, ZI Liling2, PENG Liangzhi1
1.Citrus Research Institute,Southwest University;2.Citrus Research Institute of Yuxi City, Yunnan Province
Abstract:
Soil samples were collected from 101 typical citrus orchards in 4 main citrus-planting areas of Yuxi City in Yunnan Province, and nutrient contents were measured. The 4 main citrus-planting areas are Nanpanjiang low-heat valley, Huaning hill and mountainous area, Yuanjiang dry-hot valley area and Xinping hill and mountainous area. The results showed that soil pH ranged from 3.98 to 8.07, 52.48% soil samples with sub-suitable pH for citrus growth and only 14.85% soil samples with pH suitable for citrus growth. Soil organic matter (SOM) was deficient and 59.40% soil samples were insufficient in SOM content. The average contents of available N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and B were 78.64, 53.95, 273.15, 3 240.37, 233.39, 23.21, 43.82, 5.67, 2.89 and 0.50 mg/kg, respectively. In general, the insufficient proportions (deficiency and low grades) of available N and B were 78.22% and 66.34%, respectively. The exceeding proportions (high and excessive grades) of available K, Ca, Mn and Cu were 64.36%, 51.48%, 56.44% and 83.17%, respectively. Meanwhile, 67.31%, 75.24% and 88.12% of samples were abundant (suitable, high and excessive grades) in available P, Fe and Zn contents, respectively. The insufficient, suitable and exceeding proportions of available Mg were all about 1/3. As to the regional differences of soil nutrient status, Huaning was best, followed by Xinping and Yuanjiang, Nanpanjiang was worst. There were extremely significant positive correlation between soil pH with available Ca and Mg, and significant negative correlation between soil pH with available Mn and Cu. SOM was significantly positively correlated with most other soil nutrients. In conclusion, for fertilization management of citrus orchard, attention should be paid to adjust soil pH, increase the application of N, B and organic fertilizer, moderately reduce the application of K and P fertilizers, while reasonably control the application of Ca, Mn and Cu fertilizers.
Key words:  Yuxi City  Citrus orchard  Soil  Nutrient elements

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