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控释尿素减施对双季稻光合特性和经济效益的影响
黄思怡1, 周 旋2, 田 昌1, 徐 泽3, 袁浩凌1, 刘 强1, 谢桂先1, 彭建伟1
1.湖南农业大学资源环境学院,土壤肥料资源高效利用国家工程实验室;2.湖南省农业科学院土壤肥料研究所;3.湖南省长沙县农业农村局
摘要:
通过研究控释尿素减施对双季稻产量、经济效益及光合特性的影响,并探讨各构成因素间及其与水稻产量的相互关系,筛选出最佳双季稻连作施用量,为双季稻节本增效提供依据。定位试验结果表明:与常规施肥处理相比,2015—2016年控释尿素处理早晚稻产量分别提高2.6% ~ 8.1% 和6.7% ~ 22.3%,早稻控释尿素减N 10% 处理经济效益、总颖花数和总实粒数分别提高3.00%、0.02% 和6.34%,晚稻控释尿素减N 20% 处理分别提高12.18%、5.09% 和 6.53%,且晚稻施用控释尿素的增产增收效果较早稻好。控释尿素处理随着施N量的减少其净光合速率先增加后降低。相关性分析表明:早、晚稻籽粒产量与总颖花数和总实粒数呈显著正相关。综合水稻产量和经济效益评估认为,在双季稻区习惯施N水平基础上,通过适当降低控释尿素N用量,利于形成有效穗数,提高水稻功能叶净光合速率,有效扩充籽粒库容,促进水稻增产节肥增效,且早、晚稻分别以控释尿素减N 10% 和减N 20% 处理效果最佳。
关键词:  双季稻  控释尿素  减氮  产量  经济效益  光合特性
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.04.012
分类号:S143.5
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD0800500)、国家自然科学基金区域创新发展联合基金项目(U19A2050)、湖南省自然科学基金项目(2019JJ50233)和湖南农业大学“双一流”建设项目(SYL201802004)资助。
Effects of Reducing Controlled-release Urea Application on Photosynthetic Characteristics and Economic Benefit of Double-rice Cropping System
HUANG Siyi1, ZHOU Xuan2, TIAN Chang1, XU Ze3, YUAN Haoling1, LIU Qiang1, XIE Guixian1, PENG Jianwei1
1.National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer Resources, College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University;2.Soil and Fertilizer Institute of Hunan Province;3.Agricultural and Rural Bureau of Changsha County
Abstract:
A long-term field experiment was conducted to study the effect of reducing controlled-release urea (CRU) on yield, economic benefit and photosynthetic characteristics, and the relationship between yield components and yield of double-cropping rice in order to find out the optimal application rate of CRU for saving cost and improving efficiency. The results showed that compared with conventional fertilization treatment, for early rice, CRU treatments increased early and late grain yield (2015—2016) by 2.6%–8.1% and 6.7%–22.3%, and economic benefit, total spikelet number and total grain number increased by 3.00%,0.02% and 6.34% of reducing N 10% for early rice, for late rice, reducing N 20% treatment increased by 12.18%, 5.09% and 6.53%, respectively. The above increasing effects were better for late rice than early rice. With reducing N application rate, the net photosynthetic rate in CRU treatments was first increased and then decreased. Correlation analysis showed that the grain yields were significantly positively correlated with the total number of spikelet and total number of grains of early- and late- rice. By considering the rice yield and economic benefit, it is concluded that on the basis of the conventional N application level, proper reducing N application rate in CRU in double-cropping rice region is conducive to the formation of the effective spikes, improve the net photosynthetic rate of rice function leaves, effectively expand the grain storage capacity, and thus promote the saving cost and improving yield and efficiency in double–cropping rice system. Reducing 10% N is optimum for early rice while reducing 20% N optimal for late rice.
Key words:  Double–cropping rice  Controlled–release urea  Reducing N  Grain yield  Economic benefit  Photosynthetic characteristics

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