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调控措施对滨海盐渍土磷素形态及作物磷素吸收的影响
高 珊, 杨劲松, 姚荣江, 曹逸凡, 朱 海, 孙运朋, 王相平, 谢文萍
土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所)
摘要:
滨海盐渍化土壤存在磷素有效性低的问题。本试验采用根袋法盆栽试验,共设不施磷肥、常规磷肥、磷肥+生物质炭、磷肥+腐殖酸、磷肥+商品有机肥5个处理,分析不同调控措施对非盐渍土、轻度盐渍土和中度盐渍土有效磷含量、磷素形态以及大麦磷素吸收利用的影响。结果表明:①盐碱障碍降低根区内外土壤有效磷含量,表现为非盐渍土>轻度盐渍土>中度盐渍土。添加生物质炭能显著提高轻度、中度盐渍土根区内外土壤有效磷含量,较常规磷肥对照处理分别提高40.72%、84.80%。②盐碱障碍降低大麦产量,抑制地上部对磷素的吸收,不同调控措施均能促进盐渍土上大麦对磷素的吸收,提高磷肥利用率。轻度盐渍土上不同调控措施的增产效果不显著,中度盐渍土上添加生物质炭处理显著提高大麦产量,较常规磷肥对照处理提高63.20%。③盐碱障碍降低土壤活性无机磷、NaOH-Pi、NaHCO3-Po、NaOH-Po比例,增加HCl-Pi比例。添加生物质炭处理能显著提高盐渍土活性无机磷比例,提高土壤磷的有效性。添加生物质炭和商品有机肥处理对中度盐渍土上HCl-Pi比例的降低效果优于轻度盐渍土。
关键词:  盐渍土  磷素分级  磷利用率  调控措施
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.04.006
分类号:S156.4
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0200303)、中国科学院重点部署项目(KFZD-SW-112-03-02)、国家科技支撑计划项目(2015BAD01B03-4)和江苏省重点研发计划(现代农业)项目(BE2015337-2、BE2017337-3)资助。
Effects of Different Management on Phosphorus Fractions in Coastal Saline Soil and Phosphorus Absorption and Utilization by Crops
GAO Shan, YANG Jinsong, YAO Rongjiang, CAO Yifan, ZHU Hai, SUN Yunpeng, WANG Xiangping, XIE Wenping
State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Abstract:
Low availability of phosphorus (P) universally occurs in coastal saline soil. A root-bag pot experiment was conducted, 5 treatments were designed: 1) CK0, no application of P; 2) CK, conventional P fertilizer; 3) FC, application of biochar; 4) FH, application of humic acid; 5) FM, application of organic and inorganic P. The effects of different treatments on the content of available P, P fractions and P absorption were investigated for non, light and moderate saline soils, respectively. The results showed that:1) Available P contents in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils decreased with the increase of soil salinity. The addition of biochar significantly increased available P in light and moderate saline soils, which were 40.72% and 84.80% higher than those of CK, respectively. 2) The salinization obstruction decreased barley yield and P absorption by barley aboveground. All treatments promoted P uptake by barley in saline soil and improved the utilization rate of P fertilizer. The yield-increasing effect was not significant in light saline soil for all treatments, while FC treatment significantly increased barley yield by 63.20% in moderate saline soil than CK. 3) Salinization obstruction reduced the proportion of soil active inorganic P, NaOH-Pi, NaHCO3-Po and NaOH-Po, but increased the proportion of HCl-Pi. In conclusion, FC treatment significantly increased the proportion of active inorganic P in saline soil, which improved the availability of soil phosphorus, and FC and FM treatments reduced HCl-Pi ratio more in moderate saline soil than in light saline soil.
Key words:  Saline soil  Phosphorus fraction  Phosphorus use efficiency  Management measures

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