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皖南沿江平原不同年限烟-稻轮作土壤团聚体组成与烤烟产质量的关系
王浩田1, 姜超强2, 蒋瑀霁1, 陈利军1, 祖朝龙2, 孙 波1
1.土壤与农业可持续发展重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所);2.安徽省农业科学院烟草研究所
摘要:
在安徽省皖南池州和宣城主要植烟区开展试验,研究了皖南沿江平原区典型水稻土在烟-稻轮作下团聚体组成变化与烤烟产质量的关系。试验共选择9个轮作年限田块,其中池州4个,分别为烟-稻轮作0(即种植单季稻)、2、4、9 a,宣城5个,分别为烟-稻轮作1、3、5、8、12 a。结果表明:池州地区烟-稻轮作土壤2 ~ 5 mm团聚体含量随年作年限增加呈现先增加后降低的趋势;宣城地区烟-稻轮作1 a时土壤2 ~ 5 mm团聚体含量显著高于其他轮作年限土壤,且此级团聚体所占比例与轮作年限之间显著负相关。综合池州、宣城两地,随着轮作年限的增加,烤烟产量降低,但池州地区烟叶随着轮作年限的增加,中、上部叶中氯含量呈现下降趋势,上部叶中钾/氯比呈增加趋势;宣城地区其他轮作年限烟叶中、上部叶中糖/碱比均高于轮作1 a烟叶,且轮作5 ~ 8 a内适合优质烤烟生产(变化稳定)。同时,池州地区上部烟叶刺激性和干燥感评分随着轮作年限的增加呈现下降趋势;宣城地区上部叶香气特性评分随着轮作年限增加而增高。池州和宣城两地土壤2 ~ 5 mm团聚体含量与烤烟产量呈现显著正相关关系,且产量均受土壤2 ~ 5 mm团聚体pH的显著影响。池州地区土壤中2 ~ 5 mm团聚体含量与烟叶中总糖含量呈显著正相关关系。通过建立随机森林模型发现,池州地区烟叶中总糖含量受土壤碱解氮含量影响显著。土壤2 ~ 5 mm团聚体含量与理化性质对皖南烟区烤烟产量和品质有着重要作用,通过施用秸秆、有机肥和土壤改良剂等高效培育土壤团聚体的施肥方式,可以改善土壤团粒结构,提升烟田土壤质量,保障安徽皖南烤烟适产、稳产、优质和风味独特。
关键词:  土壤团聚体组成  烤烟  产量  品质  烟稻轮作
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.05.026
分类号:S158.5
基金项目:安徽省烟草公司科技项目(20170551022)和安徽省农业科学院团队项目(2019YL039、2020YL059)资助。
Relationship Between Soil Aggregate Composition with Yield and Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco Under Different Rice-tobacco Rotation Years in Yangtse Plain South Anhui
WANG Haotian1, JIANG Chaoqiang2, JIANG Yuji1, CHEN Lijun1, ZU Chaolong2, SUN Bo1
1.State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences;2.Tobacco Research Institute, Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Abstract:
In order to investigate the effects of tobacco-rice rotation on the physical and chemical properties of soil aggregates, aggregates composition, yield and quality of tobacco leaves, field surveys were conducted in the tobacco growing areas in Chizhou and Xuancheng, located in the Yangtse plain of southern Anhui Province. In total 9 tobacco-growing fields in Chizhou and Xuancheng were surveyed and sampled, including single cropping rice (0 a), tobacco-rice rotation of 2 a, 4 a and 9 a in Chizhou; tobacco-rice rotation of 1 a, 3 a, 5 a, 8 a and 12 a in Xuancheng. The results showed that 2-5 mm aggregate content in Chizhou increased initially and then decreased with the increase of rotation year; 2-5 mm aggregate content of 1 a rotation soil in Xuancheng was significantly higher than those of other rotation years, and the proportion of 2-5 mm aggregates was negatively correlated with rotation year. With the increase of rotation year, tobacco yield decreased, but chlorine content decreased in middle and upper leaves and K/Cl ratio in upper leaves increased in Chizhou; Sugar-alkali ratio in middle and upper leaves of other rotation years in Xuancheng was higher than that of 1 a rotation, and 5-8 a rotation were suitable for high quality tobacco production. The scores of irritability and dryness of upper leaves in Chizhou showed a downward trend with the increase of rotation year, while the scores of aroma characteristics of upper leaves in Xuancheng increased with the increase of rotation year. There was a significant positive correlation between 2-5 mm aggregate content and tobacco yield in Chizhou and Xuancheng, and the yield was significantly affected by pH of 2-5 mm aggregates in the two areas. There was a significant positive correlation between the content of 2-5 mm aggregates and the content of total sugar in tobacco leaves in Chizhou. The content of total sugar in tobacco leaves in Chizhou was significantly affected by the content of soil available nitrogen. The content and physicochemical properties of 2-5 mm aggregates play an important role in yield and quality of tobacco in southern Anhui. It is necessary to apply straw, organic fertilizer and soil amendments in the farmlands in order to effectively cultivate soil aggregates, improve soil aggregate structure, improve soil quality, and ensure the appropriate, stable, high-quality and unique flavor of flue-cured tobacco in southern Anhui.
Key words:  Soil aggregate composition  Flue-cured tobacco  Yield  Quality  Tobacco-rice rotation

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