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太湖流域典型设施蔬菜地土壤结构特征研究
史艺杰, 王美艳, 徐胜祥, 史学正, 徐灵颖, 于全波
土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所)
摘要:
以太湖地区稻田、露天菜地和设施菜地为研究对象,采集耕层和犁底层土壤进行理化分析,以土壤大孔隙(>50 μm)和水稳性团聚体表征土壤结构,通过与当地传统的稻田和露天蔬菜地两种土地利用方式进行对比,研究设施菜地土壤结构的变化特征,并分析其影响因子。结果表明:设施蔬菜种植显著增加了土壤大孔隙,并提高了土壤团聚体的稳定性,大孔隙方面主要增加了耕层(0 ~ 15 cm)50 ~ 500 μm和>500 μm团聚体的孔隙度,其孔隙度与稻田土壤相比分别提高了133% 和141%,与露天菜地土壤相比分别提高了120% 和50.4%;土壤团聚体表现为小团聚体减少,大团聚体增加,相比于水稻田和露天菜地,耕层水稳性团聚体平均重量直径(MWD)提高了72.3% 和26.6%,团聚体破坏率(PAD)降低了46.5% 和37.8%;犁底层MWD分别提高了83.9% 和78.1%,PAD降低了42.9% 和44.8%。相关分析表明,土壤结构参数与有机质含量和砂粒粉粒含量显著相关。研究区土壤质地为粉砂壤土,质地轻,设施菜种植中有机肥施用量倍增,有机质含量显著提高,有利于增加设施菜地土壤的大孔隙,增加大团聚体含量,提高团聚体稳定性。轻质粉砂壤土进行设施蔬菜种植后每茬施用有机肥11.3 t/hm2能改善土壤结构,有效避免集约化种植后土壤板结现象。
关键词:  设施菜地  土壤孔隙  团聚体  土壤有机质
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.05.025
分类号:S152
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41401240,41571209)和中科院南京土壤研究所“一三五”领域前沿项目(ISSASIP1627)资助。
Study on Soil Structure Characteristics of Typical Greenhouse Vegetable Field in Taihu Lake Region
SHI Yijie, WANG Meiyan, XU Shengxiang, SHI Xuezheng, XU Lingying, YU Quanbo
State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Abstract:
raditional paddy fields, open vegetable fields and greenhouse vegetable fields in Taihu Lake region were taken as study objects. The topsoil and subsoil were collected and the physical and chemical properties were determined. Soil macropores (>50 μm), soil aggregates were chosen to characterize soil structure. The variation characteristics of soil structure were studied and the impact factors were analyzed. The results showed that greenhouse vegetable planting significantly increased soil macropores and improved the stability of soil aggregates. In terms of macroporosity, the greenhouse vegetable planting increased 50-500 μm and >500 μm porosity of the topsoil (0-15 cm), which was 133% and 141% higher than those of the paddy field, respectively, and increased by 120% and 50.4% compared with open vegetable field. The greenhouse soil showed a decrease in small aggregates and an increase in large aggregates, compared to paddy field and open vegetable field, the mean weight diameter (MWD) of water-stable aggregates in the topsoil increased by 72.3% and 26.6%, the percentage of aggregate destruction (PAD) decreased by 46.5% and 37.8%, the MWD of the subsoil increased by 83.9% and 78.1%, and the PAD decreased by 42.9% and 44.8%, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that soil structural parameters were significantly correlated with the contents of organic matter, sands and silts. Soil texture of the study area was silty loam, the application of organic fertilizer (11.3 t/hm2) for greenhouse vegetable crop significantly improved soil macropores and increased large aggregates, thus, improved soil structure and effectively avoided soil compaction after intensive planting.
Key words:  Greenhouse vegetable  Soil macropores  Soil aggregates  Soli organic matter

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