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不同比例有机肥替代化肥对水稻产量和氮素利用率的影响
侯红乾, 冀建华, 刘秀梅, 吕真真, 蓝贤瑾, 刘益仁
江西省农业科学院土壤肥料与资源环境研究所,国家红壤改良工程技术研究中心,农业部长江中下游作物生理生态与耕作重点实验室
摘要:
在江西双季稻区进行30 a的田间定位试验,比较不施氮肥(CK)、施用化肥(NPK)、等养分条件下70% 化肥配合施用 30% 有机肥(70F+30M)、50% 化肥配合施用50% 有机肥(50F+50M)、30% 化肥配合施用70% 有机肥(30F+70M)施肥条件下水稻产量、氮素吸收、氮素利用率的变化。结果表明:与等养分量NPK处理相比,有机无机肥配施处理能显著提高30 a双季稻平均产量(P<0.05),增产幅度在2.47% ~ 5.73%,其中30F+70M处理产量最高,且不同比例有机无机肥配施处理之间有显著差异,30F+70M处理显著高于50F+50M处理(P<0.05)。在不同时间段,不同有机无机肥配施处理产量表现不同,低量有机肥配施处理在试验前期具有明显的增产优势,高量有机肥配施处理在试验中后期增产效果明显。与等养分量NPK处理相比,有机无机肥配施处理30 a平均吸氮量无显著差异,不同施肥处理每生产1 t籽粒对氮素的需求不同,有机无机肥配施处理(20.57 ~ 20.94 kg)低于NPK处理(21.77 kg),其中30F+70M、70F+30M处理具有较高的氮素生产效率。有机无机肥配施处理30 a平均氮肥吸收利用率与等养分条件下NPK处理无显著差异,但氮肥生理利用率显著提高。有机无机肥配施能提高双季稻产量、氮素利用效率,不同肥力水平稻田应选择适合的比例,中低肥力水平稻田以30% 有机肥配施较为合适,而高肥力水平稻田宜选择50%、70% 有机肥配施较为合适。
关键词:  有机无机肥配施  水稻产量  水稻吸氮量  氮素利用效率
DOI:10.13758/j.cnki.tr.2020.04.015
分类号:S158.3;S511.3
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD0200703,2017YFD0200702)资助。
Effect of Long-Term Combined Application of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on Rice Yield, Nitrogen Uptake and Utilization in Red Soil Area of China
HOU Hongqian, JI Jianhua, LIU Xiumei, LÜ Zhenzhen, LAN Xianjin, LIU Yiren
Soil & Fertilizer and Resources and Environment Institute, Jiangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, National Engineering and Technology Research Center for Red Soil Improvement, Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Faming System for the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River, Ministry of Agriculture
Abstract:
A 30 a (1984—2013) long-term location experiment was conducted to study the effects of the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the yield, nitrogen uptakes and use efficiency of double-cropping rice in red soil area of Jiangxi in south China in order to provide scientific references for the rational application of organic resources and the suitable rice fertilization. Five different treatments were designed : 1) CK, no nitrogen fertilization; 2) 100% NPK, N, P and K chemical fertilizers only; 3) 70F+30M, 70% chemical fertilizers and 30% organic manure; 4) 50F+50M, 50% chemical fertilizers and 50% organic manure, and 5) 30F+70M, 30% chemical fertilizers and 70% organic manure. The results showed that rice yield under the treatments combined with organic manure were 2.74%-5.73% (P<0.05) higher than NPK treatment. Rice yield under 30F+70M treatment was the highest. Significant differences were found between the treatments combined with organic manure, rice yield under 30F+70M treatment significantly increased by 3.7% (P<0.05) than 50F+50M treatment, and the yield-increasing effects were different in different period, lower proportion of organic manure was better at the early stage while high proportion of organic manure was better at the late stage. No significant difference was found in mean nitrogen uptake by rice between treatments combined with organic manure and NPK treatment. Different treatments had different nitrogen requirements for grain yield per 1 t, which were 20.57-20.94 kg for treatments combined with organic manure and 21.77 kg for NPK treatment. 30F+70M and 70F+30M treatments had higher nitrogen efficiency, no significance was found in average nitrogen use efficiency between treatments combined with organic manure and NPK treatment, but nitrogen physiological use efficiency of treatments combined with organic manure was significantly higher than NPK treatment. In red soil area, long-term combined application of organic manure and inorganic fertilizers can promote yield and nitrogen efficiency for double-cropping rice, but the optimal combined proportion of organic fertilizer should be determined according to the fertility of rice fields, usually, 30% was appropriate for rice fields with middle or low fertility, while 50% and 70% for rice fields with high fertility.
Key words:  Combined application of organic manure and inorganic fertilizer  Rice yield  Rice N uptake  N efficiency

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